Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) in breast cancer: relationship with clinicopathological parameters and prognostic significance.
ABSTRACT Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine protease primarily involved in the intravascular dissolution of blood clots. High intratumoral tPA levels are associated with prognosis in several human tumors. In addition, tPA has been shown to be an estrogen-inducible protein in human breast cancer cell lines. The aim of the present study was to analyze the cytosolic tPA content in primary breast carcinomas and its potential clinical value.
tPA was measured by a solid-phase enzyme immunoassay in tumor cytosol samples obtained from 800 patients with breast cancer. The median follow-up period was of 49.2 months.
Cytosolic tPA levels ranged widely in breast carcinomas (median: 3.9; range: 0.1- 315.3 ng/mg protein). tPA levels were significantly lower in large tumors, as well as in those showing poor differentiation, estrogen (ER) or PgR-negativity, aneuploidy, or a high S-phase fraction. In addition, low tPA intratumoral levels were associated with a high probability of both shortened relapse-free and overall survival in all patients and in the subgroup with node-negative tumors. However, our results did not show any significant relationship between intratumoral tPA levels and prognosis in the different subgroups of patients, stratified according to the type of systemic adjuvant therapy received (chemotherapy, tamoxifen or chemotherapy plus sequential tamoxifen).
The results of the present investigation indicate that low intratumoral tPA levels are associated with aggressiveness and poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. However, the study suggests that tPA levels do not predict response to systemic adjuvant therapy.
SourceAvailable from: Amilcar Flores-Morales[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer are age-related diseases, affecting a majority of elderly men in the western world, and are known to be influenced by several different hormones, including sex hormones. Although the hormone prolactin (PRL) is well known to exert trophic effects on prostate cells, its involvement in pathophysiological conditions is still poorly characterized. In order to evaluate the potential role of PRL in promoting prostate growth, we have used a recently developed transgenic mouse model that overexpresses the PRL gene specifically in the prostate (Pb-PRL transgenic mice). The PRL transgenic mice develop a significant prostate hyperplasia which increases with age. The prostates of the Pb-PRL transgenic mice display a prominent stromal hyperplasia with mild epithelial dysplastic features, leading to an increased stromal/epithelial ratio. Accumulation of secretory material is also a major characteristic. By using cDNA microarray analysis we have obtained interesting insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in the prostate hyperplasia. Of particular interest is the significance of reduced apoptosis for the development/progression of the prostate phenotype. This finding was further confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis using two different apoptosis markers. Moreover, in line with the prominent expansion of the stromal compartment were the identified changes in gene expression seen in the PRL transgenic prostate, suggesting that activation of the stroma is important for the development of the prostate hyperplasia. Overall, we demonstrate histological and molecular similarities between the prostate hyperplasia of Pb-PRL transgenic mice and human prostate pathology, including both BPH and prostate cancer.12/2007: pages 271-281;
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ABSTRACT: For decades tumors have been recognized as "wounds that do not heal." Besides the commonalities that tumors and wounded tissues share, the process of wound healing also portrays similar characteristics with chronic fibrosis. In this review, we suggest a tight interrelationship, which is governed as a concurrence of cellular and microenvironmental reactivity among wound healing, chronic fibrosis and cancer development/progression (i.e., the WHFC triad). It is clear that the same cell types, as well as soluble and matrix elements that drive wound healing (including regeneration) via distinct signaling pathways, also fuel chronic fibrosis and tumor progression. Hence, here we review the relationship between fibrosis and cancer through the lens of wound healing.Physiological Genomics 02/2014; 46(7). DOI:10.1152/physiolgenomics.00158.2013 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation can inhibit breast epithelial and cancer cells from undergoing programmed cell death in response to diverse apoptotic stimuli. Understanding the mechanisms underlying inappropriate cell survival mechanisms is important for treating breast cancer because if we can reverse these mechanisms, therapies designed to kill tumor cells are likely to be more effective. Recently, genome-wide DNA microarrays have provided a glimpse into the signals and interactions within regulatory pathways of the cell. These arrays enable simultaneous measurement of mRNA abundance of most, if not all, identified genes in a genome under different physiological conditions. Currently, two types of microarray experiments are frequently performed in laboratories. The first is a single time point microarray experiment, and the second is a time course microarray experiment. Single time point microarray experiments are effective in identifying genes regulated by a given treatment, e.g., direct target genes of a hormone treatment. However, because molecular pathways are dynamic processes that take place over time, single time point microarray experiments may not allow us to identify dynamic molecular pathways. This problem can be approached by performing a time course microarray experiment, which measures gene expression changes at various time points following a given treatment. In this chapter, we first describe how to identify target genes of a given treatment using a single time point microarray data analysis. We then present three alternate bioinformatics approaches to uncover molecular mechanisms from time course microarray data. Finally, we present a novel bioinformatics approach for analyzing time course microarray data in order to identify novel GR-mediated breast cancer cell survival pathways.12/2007: pages 165-183;