High homeopathic potencies are different from potentized solvent when investigated with the REDEM technology
ABSTRACT To determine in a series of randomized blinded experiments using the REDEM technology whether differences between high homeopathic potencies and similarly potentized solvent can be detected.
A REDEM device was employed as a black box. Samples were measured in a capacitor that was connected to 60 individual oscillator circuits at frequencies between 250 and 930 KHz; their oscillation damping was recorded. In two experiments (3 and 4 replications) stable differences between a potentized 'mother tincture' and potentized solvent were assessed. Statistical analysis was done using ANCOVA.
Significant differences (p < 0.01) between remedy and control were found, mostly at the same oscillator frequencies. Those differences found for only one remedy always were at frequencies adjacent to frequencies with differences for other remedies. VISUAL ANALYSIS: Where output curves were not near 0, remedy values were higher than controls. Curves within a replication ran parallel, their distances varied. Between replications, curve shapes and remedy- control differences were similar, however, control curves varied in height. Control and remedy curves between experiments varied in shape. Effects increased with time and sample conductivity. Ethanol 43% as solvent eliminated the observed effects, use of polyethylene containers considerably attenuated them.
A probably physical difference was seen between potentized homeopathic remedies and potentized solvent. The differences are associated with sample age, solvent, and container material. The REDEM technology requires further investigation to determine the nature of the underlying mechanisms of the observed differences.
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ABSTRACT: Reporting experiments in basic research in homeopathy is an important issue as comprehensive description of what exactly was done is required. So far, there is no guideline for authors available, unlike criteria catalogues common in clinical research. A Delphi Process was conducted, including a total of five rounds, three rounds of adjusting and phrasing plus two consensus conferences. European researchers who published experimental work within the last five years were involved. A checklist of 23 items was obtained and supplemented with detailed examples emphasizing what each item implies. Background, objectives and possible hypotheses should be given in the part 'introduction'. Special emphasis is put on the 'materials and methods' section, where a detailed description of chosen controls, object of investigation, experimental setup, replication, parameters, intervention, allocation, blinding, and statistical methods is required. The section 'results' should present sufficient details on analysed data, descriptive as well as inferential. Authors should discuss their results and give an interpretation in the context of current evidence. A guideline for Reporting Experiments in Homeopathic Basic Research (REHBaR) was compiled to be applied by authors when preparing their manuscripts, and to be used by scientific journals in the reviewing process. Furthermore the guideline is a commitment to a certain minimum quality level needed in basic research, e.g. blinding and randomisation. Feedback is encouraged on applicability, strength and limitations of the list to enable future revisions.Homeopathy: the journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy 10/2009; 98(4):287-98. DOI:10.1016/j.homp.2009.09.006
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ABSTRACT: Background This paper proposes a novel model for homeopathic remedy action on living systems. Research indicates that homeopathic remedies (a) contain measurable source and silica nanoparticles heterogeneously dispersed in colloidal solution; (b) act by modulating biological function of the allostatic stress response network (c) evoke biphasic actions on living systems via organism-dependent adaptive and endogenously amplified effects; (d) improve systemic resilience. Discussion The proposed active components of homeopathic remedies are nanoparticles of source substance in water-based colloidal solution, not bulk-form drugs. Nanoparticles have unique biological and physico-chemical properties, including increased catalytic reactivity, protein and DNA adsorption, bioavailability, dose-sparing, electromagnetic, and quantum effects different from bulk-form materials. Trituration and/or liquid succussions during classical remedy preparation create “top-down” nanostructures. Plants can biosynthesize remedy-templated silica nanostructures. Nanoparticles stimulate hormesis, a beneficial low-dose adaptive response. Homeopathic remedies prescribed in low doses spaced intermittently over time act as biological signals that stimulate the organism’s allostatic biological stress response network, evoking nonlinear modulatory, self-organizing change. Potential mechanisms include time-dependent sensitization (TDS), a type of adaptive plasticity/metaplasticity involving progressive amplification of host responses, which reverse direction and oscillate at physiological limits. To mobilize hormesis and TDS, the remedy must be appraised as a salient, but low level, novel threat, stressor, or homeostatic disruption for the whole organism. Silica nanoparticles adsorb remedy source and amplify effects. Properly-timed remedy dosing elicits disease-primed compensatory reversal in direction of maladaptive dynamics of the allostatic network, thus promoting resilience and recovery from disease. Summary Homeopathic remedies are proposed as source nanoparticles that mobilize hormesis and time-dependent sensitization via non-pharmacological effects on specific biological adaptive and amplification mechanisms. The nanoparticle nature of remedies would distinguish them from conventional bulk drugs in structure, morphology, and functional properties. Outcomes would depend upon the ability of the organism to respond to the remedy as a novel stressor or heterotypic biological threat, initiating reversals of cumulative, cross-adapted biological maladaptations underlying disease in the allostatic stress response network. Systemic resilience would improve. This model provides a foundation for theory-driven research on the role of nanomaterials in living systems, mechanisms of homeopathic remedy actions and translational uses in nanomedicine.BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 10/2012; 12(1):191. DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-12-191
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ABSTRACT: The pharmacodynamics aspects of homeopathic remedies are appraised by laboratory studies on the biological effects at various levels (cellular, molecular and systemic). The major question is how these medicines may work in the body. The possible answers concern the identification of biological targets, the means of drug-receptor interactions, the mechanisms of signal transmission and amplification, and the models of inversion of effects according to the traditional 'simile' rule. These problems are handled by two experimental and theoretical lines, according to the doses or dilutions considered (low-medium versus high dilutions). Homeopathic formulations in low-medium dilutions, containing molecules in the range of ultra-low doses, exploit the extreme sensitivity of biological systems to exogenous and endogenous signals. Their effects are interpreted in the framework of hormesis theories and paradoxical pharmacology. The hypotheses regarding the action mechanisms of highly diluted/dynamized solutions (beyond Avogadro-Loschmidt limit) variously invoke sensitivity to bioelectromagnetic information, participation of water chains in signalling, and regulation of bifurcation points of systemic networks. High-dilution pharmacology is emerging as a pioneering subject in the domain of nanomedicine and is providing greater plausibility to the puzzling claims of homeopathy.Homeopathy: the journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy 01/2014; 103(1):22-43. DOI:10.1016/j.homp.2013.08.002