Article

The phosphoinositol-3-kinase-protein kinase B/Akt pathway is critical for Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAK internalization.

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
Molecular Biology of the Cell (Impact Factor: 4.55). 06/2005; 16(5):2577-85. DOI: 10.1091/mbc.E04-08-0717
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Several Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains are internalized by epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo, but the host pathways usurped by the bacteria to enter nonphagocytic cells are not clearly understood. Here, we report that internalization of strain PAK into epithelial cells triggers and requires activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B/Akt (Akt). Incubation of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) or HeLa cells with the PI3K inhibitors LY294002 (LY) or wortmannin abrogated PAK uptake. Addition of the PI3K product phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3] to polarized MDCK cells was sufficient to increase PAK internalization. PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 accumulated at the site of bacterial binding in an LY-dependent manner. Akt phosphorylation correlated with PAK invasion. The specific Akt phosphorylation inhibitor SH-5 inhibited PAK uptake; internalization also was inhibited by small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of Akt phosphorylation. Expression of constitutively active Akt was sufficient to restore invasion when PI3K signaling was inhibited. Together, these results demonstrate that the PI3K signaling pathway is necessary and sufficient for the P. aeruginosa entry and provide the first example of a bacterium that requires Akt for uptake into epithelial cells.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
61 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Clinical infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a deadly Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen of immunocompromised hosts, often involve the formation of antibiotic-resistant biofilms. Although biofilm formation has been extensively studied in vitro on glass or plastic surfaces, much less is known about biofilm formation at the epithelial barrier. We have previously shown that when added to the apical surface of polarized epithelial cells, P. aeruginosa rapidly forms cell-associated aggregates within 60 minutes of infection. By confocal microscopy we now show that cell-associated aggregates exhibit key characteristics of biofilms, including the presence of extracellular matrix and increased resistance to antibiotics compared to planktonic bacteria. Using isogenic mutants in the type III secretion system, we found that the translocon, but not the effectors themselves, were required for cell-associated aggregation on the surface of polarized epithelial cells and at early time points in a murine model of acute pneumonia. In contrast, the translocon was not required for aggregation on abiotic surfaces, suggesting a novel function for the type III secretion system during cell-associated aggregation. Supernatants from epithelial cells infected with wild-type bacteria or from cells treated with the pore-forming toxin streptolysin O could rescue aggregate formation in a type III secretion mutant, indicating that cell-associated aggregation requires one or more host cell factors. Our results suggest a previously unappreciated function for the type III translocon in the formation of P. aeruginosa biofilms at the epithelial barrier and demonstrate that biofilms may form at early time points of infection.
    PLoS Pathogens 11/2014; 10(11):e1004479. · 8.14 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important pathogen causing hospital-acquired septicemia and the recent emergence of community-acquired pyogenic liver abscess (PLA). Clinical typing suggests that K. pneumoniae infections originate from the gastrointestinal reservoir. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, we have sought to determine how K. pneumoniae penetrates the intestinal barrier. We identified that bacteremia and PLA clinical isolates adhered to and invaded intestinal epithelial cells. Internalization of K. pneumoniae in three different human colonic cell lines was visualized by confocal microscopy and 3-D imaging. Using a transwell system, we demonstrated that these K. pneumoniae isolates translocated across a polarized Caco-2 monolayer. No disruptions of transepithelial electrical resistance and altered distribution of tight junction proteins ZO-1 or occludin were observed. Therefore, K. pneumoniae appeared to penetrate the intestinal epithelium via a transcellular pathway. Using specific inhibitors, we characterized the host signaling pathways involved. Inhibition by cytochalasin D and nocodazole suggested that actin and microtubule cytoskeleton were both important for K. pneumoniae invasion. A Rho Inhibitor, ML141, LY294002 and an Akt1/2 Inhibitor diminished K. pneumoniae invasion in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that Rho-family GTPases and PI3K/Akt signaling were required. By a mouse model of gastrointestinal colonization, in vivo invasion of K. pneumoniae into colonic epithelial cells was demonstrated. Our results present the evidence to describe a possible mechanism of gastrointestinal translocation for K. pneumoniae. Cell invasion by manipulating host machinery provides a pathway for gut-colonized K. pneumoniae to penetrate the intestinal barrier and access extra-intestinal locations to cause disease. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
    Infection and Immunity 12/2014; · 4.16 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background The human opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) carries the highest case fatality rate of all gram-negative infections. Unfortunately, antimicrobial therapy has not been demonstrated to improve clinical outcome and the emergence of multidrug resistant P. aeruginosa has become a major concern in the hospital setting. Fever and diarrhea are the two most common initial symptoms in P. aeruginosa sepsis in previously healthy infants and children. This implies that intestinal epithelial cells in first contact with the pathogen may play an important role in innate immunity to P. aeruginosa infection. Human beta¿defensins-2 (hBD-2) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) are crucial for host defense at mucosa but IL-8 may give rise to characteristic pathology of colitis.Results Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 was used to infect SW480, an intestinal epithelial cell. IL-8 and hBD-2 mRNA expression and protein secretion were then assessed in SW480 cells using RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Intracellular signaling pathways and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) 1 protein expression were analyzed by Western blot in SW480 cells in the presence or absence of inhibitors or transfected with siRNA.We demonstrate that prolonged infection by P. aeruginosa results in suppression of IL-8 but enhancement of hBD-2, either protein secretion and mRNA expression, in SW480 cells. Inhibitors of ERK suppressed but inhibitor of PI3K enhanced P. aeruginosa-induced IL-8 mRNA expression in SW480 cells while both signaling had no effect on P. aeruginosa-induced hBD-2 expression in SW480 cells. On the other hand, NOD 1 was illustrated to get involved in P. aeruginosa-induced hBD-2 mRNA expression and protein production in SW480 cells.Conclusions The P. aeruginosa-induced antimicrobial peptide in IECs continuously protect the host against prolonged infection, while modulation of proinflammatory responses prevents the host from the detrimental effects of overwhelming inflammation. Thus, P. aeruginosa-induced innate immunity in IECs represents a host protective mechanism, which may provide new insight into the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases.
    BMC Microbiology 11/2014; 14(1):275. · 2.98 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
0 Downloads
Available from