Article

Conditional likelihood score functions for mixed models in linkage analysis.

Department of Mathematics, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
Biostatistics (Impact Factor: 2.43). 05/2005; 6(2):313-32. DOI: 10.1093/biostatistics/kxi012
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In this paper, we develop a general strategy for linkage analysis, applicable for arbitrary pedigree structures and genetic models with one major gene, polygenes and shared environmental effects. Extending work of Whittemore (1996), McPeek (1999) and Hossjer (2003d), the efficient score statistic is computed from a conditional likelihood of marker data given phenotypes. The resulting semiparametric linkage analysis is very similar to nonparametric linkage based on affected individuals. The efficient score S depends not only on identical-by-descent sharing and phenotypes, but also on a few parameters chosen by the user. We focus on (1) weak penetrance models, where the major gene has a small effect and (2) rare disease models, where the major gene has a possibly strong effect but the disease causing allele is rare. We illustrate our results for a large class of genetic models with a multivariate Gaussian liability. This class incorporates one major gene, polygenes and shared environmental effects in the liability, and allows e.g. binary, Gaussian, Poisson distributed and life-length phenotypes. A detailed simulation study is conducted for Gaussian phenotypes. The performance of the two optimal score functions S(wpairs) and S(normdom) are investigated. The conclusion is that (i) inclusion of polygenic effects into the score function increases overall performance for a wide range of genetic models and (ii) score functions based on the rare disease assumption are slightly more powerful.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
70 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this article we deal with two-locus nonparametric linkage (NPL) analysis, mainly in the context of conditional analysis. This means that one incorporates single-locus analysis information through conditioning when performing a two-locus analysis. Here we describe different strategies for using this approach. Cox et al. [Nat Genet 1999;21:213-215] implemented this as follows: (i) Calculate the one-locus NPL process over the included genome region(s). (ii) Weight the individual pedigree NPL scores using a weighting function depending on the NPL scores for the corresponding pedigrees at speci fi c conditioning loci. We generalize this by conditioning with respect to the inheritance vector rather than the NPL score and by separating between the case of known (prede fi ned) and unknown (estimated) conditioning loci. In the latter case we choose conditioning locus, or loci, according to prede fi ned criteria. The most general approach results in a random number of selected loci, depending on the results from the previous one-locus analysis. Major topics in this article include discussions on optimal score functions with respect to the noncentrality parameter (NCP), and how to calculate adequate p values and perform power calculations. We also discuss issues related to multiple tests which arise from the two-step procedure with several conditioning loci as well as from the genome-wide tests.
    Human Heredity 02/2008; 66(3):138-56. · 1.57 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Many common diseases are known to have genetic components, but since they are non-Mendelian, i.e. a large number of genetic factors affect the phenotype, these components are difficult to localize. These traits are often called complex and analysis of siblings is a valuable tool for mapping them. It has been shown that the power of the affected relative pairs method to detect linkage of a disease susceptibility locus depends on the locus contribution to increased risk of relatives compared with population prevalence (Risch, 1990a,b). In this paper we generalize calculation of relative risk to arbitrary phenotypes and genetic models, but also show that the relative risk can be split into the relative risk at the main locus and the relative risk due to interaction between the main locus and loci at other chromosomes. We demonstrate how the main locus contribution to the relative risk is related to probabilities of allele sharing identical by descent at the main locus, as well as power to detect linkage. To this end we use the effective number of meioses, introduced by Hössjer (2005a) as a convenient tool. Relative risks and effective number of meioses are computed for several genetic models with binary or quantitative phenotypes, with or without polygenic effects.
    Annals of Human Genetics 12/2006; 70(Pt 6):907-22. · 2.22 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lately, many different methods of linkage, association or joint analysis for family data have been invented and refined. Common to most of those is that they require a map of markers that are in linkage equilibrium. However, at the present day, high-density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) maps are both more inexpensive to create and they have lower genotyping error. When marker data is incomplete, the crucial and computationally most demanding moment in the analysis is to calculate the inheritance distribution at a certain position on the chromosome. Recently, different ways of adjusting traditional methods of linkage analysis to denser maps of SNPs in linkage disequilibrium (LD) have been proposed. We describe a hidden Markov model which generalizes the Lander-Green algorithm. It combines Markov chain for inheritance vectors with a Markov chain modelling founder haplotypes and in this way takes account for LD between SNPs. It can be applied to association, linkage or combined association and linkage analysis, general phenotypes and arbitrary score functions. We also define a joint likelihood for linkage and association that extends an idea of Kong and Cox (1997 Am. J. Hum. Genet. 61: 1179-1188) for pure linkage analysis.
    Genetic Epidemiology 06/2008; 32(7):647-57. · 4.02 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
26 Downloads
Available from
May 31, 2014