Sequences from the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) cytoplasmic domain enhance amyloid beta protein production via the beta-secretase pathway without altering amyloid precursor protein/LRP nuclear signaling.
ABSTRACT Increasing evidence suggests that the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) affects the processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and amyloid beta (Abeta) protein production as well as mediates the clearance of Abeta from the brain. Recent studies indicate that the cytoplasmic domain of LRP is critical for this modulation of APP processing requiring perhaps a complex between APP, the adaptor protein FE65, and LRP. In this study, we expressed a small LRP domain consisting of the C-terminal 97 amino acids of the cytoplasmic domain, or LRP-soluble tail (LRP-ST), in CHO cells to test the hypothesis that the APP.LRP complex can be disrupted. We anticipated that LRP-ST would inhibit the normal interaction between LRP and APP and therefore perturb APP processing to resemble a LRP-deficient state. Surprisingly, CHO cells expressing LRP-ST demonstrated an increase in both sAPP secretion and Abeta production compared with control CHO cells in a manner reminiscent of the cellular effects of the APP "Swedish mutation." The increase in sAPP secretion consisted mainly of sAPPbeta, consistent with the increase in Abeta release. Further, this effect is LRP-independent, as the same alterations remained when LRP-ST was expressed in LRP-deficient cells but not when the construct was membrane-anchored. Finally, deletion experiments suggested that the last 50 amino acid residues of LRP-ST contain the important domain for altering APP processing and Abeta production. These observations indicate that there are cellular pathways that may suppress Abeta generation but that can be altered to facilitate Abeta production.
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ABSTRACT: Advances in research and technology has increased our quality of life, allowed us to combat diseases, and achieve increased longevity. Unfortunately, increased longevity is accompanied by a rise in the incidences of age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is the sixth leading cause of death, and one of the leading causes of dementia amongst the aged population in the USA. It is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by the prevalence of extracellular Aβ plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, derived from the proteolysis of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the hyperphosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein tau, respectively. Despite years of extensive research, the molecular mechanisms that underlie the pathology of AD remain unclear. Model organisms, such as the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, present a complementary approach to addressing these questions. C. elegans has many advantages as a model system to study AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. Like their mammalian counterparts, they have complex biochemical pathways, most of which are conserved. Genes in which mutations are correlated with AD have counterparts in C. elegans, including an APP-related gene, apl-1, a tau homolog, ptl-1, and presenilin homologs, such as sel-12 and hop-1. Since the neuronal connectivity in C. elegans has already been established, C. elegans is also advantageous in modeling learning and memory impairments seen during AD. This article addresses the insights C. elegans provide in studying AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. Additionally, we explore the advantages and drawbacks associated with using this model.Frontiers in Genetics 09/2014; 5:279.
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ABSTRACT: Synaptic vesicles are key organelles in chemical signaling, allowing neurons to communicate with each other and with neighboring cells. Vesicle integral or membrane-associated proteins mediate the various tasks the organelle fulfills during its life cycle. These include organelle transport, interaction with the nerve terminal cytoskeleton, uptake and storage of low molecular weight constituents, and the regulated interaction with the presynaptic plasma membrane, the active zone, during exo- and endocytosis. Converging work from several laboratories within the last 30 years resulted in the molecular and functional characterization of the protein inventory of the synaptic vesicle compartment. Nowadays advances in membrane protein separation and mass spectrometry have dramatically promoted this field resulting in a detailed description of the synaptic vesicle proteome and making synaptic vesicles the best characterized organelles. Recently, the proteome of the active zone was identified using the docked synaptic vesicles as target for immunoisolation. Combining gel-based protein separation techniques, mass spectrometry, and immunodetection, a considerable variety of proteins has been detected in the active zone. This includes synaptic vesicle proteins, components of the presynaptic fusion and retrieval machinery, proteins involved in intracellular signal transduction, a large variety of adhesion molecules and proteins potentially involved in regulating the functional and structural dynamics of the presynapse. Here, we discuss recent information concerning the proteome of the presynaptic active zone, focusing on proteins that are potentially involved in the short- and long-term structural modulation of the mature presynaptic compartment. In addition, we discuss the functional relevance of amyloid precursor protein in these membrane fractions and the putative interplay with direct or indirect interaction partners in the active zone.Experimental Brain Research 02/2012; 217(3-4):449-61. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Insulin performs unique functions within the CNS. Produced nearly exclusively by the pancreas, insulin crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) using a saturable transporter, affecting feeding and cognition through CNS mechanisms largely independent of glucose utilization. Whereas peripheral insulin acts primarily as a metabolic regulatory hormone, CNS insulin has an array of effects on brain that may more closely resemble the actions of the ancestral insulin molecule. Brain endothelial cells (BECs), the cells that form the vascular BBB and contain the transporter that translocates insulin from blood to brain, are themselves regulated by insulin. The insulin transporter is altered by physiological and pathological factors including hyperglycemia and the diabetic state. The latter can lead to BBB disruption. Pericytes, pluripotent cells in intimate contact with the BECs, protect the integrity of the BBB and its ability to transport insulin. Most of insulin's known actions within the CNS are mediated through two canonical pathways, the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3)/Akt and Ras/mitogen activated kinase (MAPK) cascades. Resistance to insulin action within the CNS, sometimes referred to as diabetes mellitus type III, is associated with peripheral insulin resistance, but it is possible that variable hormonal resistance syndromes exist so that resistance at one tissue bed may be independent of that at others. CNS insulin resistance is associated with Alzheimer's disease, depression, and impaired baroreceptor gain in pregnancy. These aspects of CNS insulin action and the control of its entry by the BBB are likely only a small part of the story of insulin within the brain.Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics 07/2012; 136(1):82-93. · 7.79 Impact Factor