Sequences from the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) cytoplasmic domain enhance amyloid beta protein production via the beta-secretase pathway without altering amyloid precursor protein/LRP nuclear signaling.
ABSTRACT Increasing evidence suggests that the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) affects the processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and amyloid beta (Abeta) protein production as well as mediates the clearance of Abeta from the brain. Recent studies indicate that the cytoplasmic domain of LRP is critical for this modulation of APP processing requiring perhaps a complex between APP, the adaptor protein FE65, and LRP. In this study, we expressed a small LRP domain consisting of the C-terminal 97 amino acids of the cytoplasmic domain, or LRP-soluble tail (LRP-ST), in CHO cells to test the hypothesis that the APP.LRP complex can be disrupted. We anticipated that LRP-ST would inhibit the normal interaction between LRP and APP and therefore perturb APP processing to resemble a LRP-deficient state. Surprisingly, CHO cells expressing LRP-ST demonstrated an increase in both sAPP secretion and Abeta production compared with control CHO cells in a manner reminiscent of the cellular effects of the APP "Swedish mutation." The increase in sAPP secretion consisted mainly of sAPPbeta, consistent with the increase in Abeta release. Further, this effect is LRP-independent, as the same alterations remained when LRP-ST was expressed in LRP-deficient cells but not when the construct was membrane-anchored. Finally, deletion experiments suggested that the last 50 amino acid residues of LRP-ST contain the important domain for altering APP processing and Abeta production. These observations indicate that there are cellular pathways that may suppress Abeta generation but that can be altered to facilitate Abeta production.
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ABSTRACT: We previously reported that RanBP9 binds low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP), amyloid precursor protein (APP), and BACE1 and robustly increased Aβ generation in a variety of cell lines and primary neuronal cultures. To confirm the physiological/ pathological significance of this phenotype in vivo, we successfully generated transgenic mice overexpressing RanBP9 as well as RanBP9-null mice. Here we show that RanBP9 overexpression resulted in >2-fold increase in Aβ40 levels as early as 4 mo of age. A sustained increase in Aβ40 levels was seen at 12 mo of age in both CHAPS-soluble and formic acid (FA)-soluble brain fractions. In addition, Aβ42 levels were also significantly increased in FA-soluble fractions at 12 mo of age. More important, increased Aβ levels were translated to increased deposition of amyloid plaques. In addition, RanBP9 overexpression significantly decreased the levels of synaptophysin and PSD-95 proteins. Conversely, RanBP9-null mice showed increased levels of synaptophysin, PSD-95, and drebrin A protein levels. Given that loss of synapses is the best pathological correlate of cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD), increased Aβ levels by RanBP9 observed in the present study provides compelling evidence that RanBP9 may indeed play a key role in the etiology of AD. If so, RanBP9 provides a great opportunity to develop novel therapy for AD.The FASEB Journal 01/2012; 26(5):2072-83. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Synaptic vesicles are key organelles in chemical signaling, allowing neurons to communicate with each other and with neighboring cells. Vesicle integral or membrane-associated proteins mediate the various tasks the organelle fulfills during its life cycle. These include organelle transport, interaction with the nerve terminal cytoskeleton, uptake and storage of low molecular weight constituents, and the regulated interaction with the presynaptic plasma membrane, the active zone, during exo- and endocytosis. Converging work from several laboratories within the last 30 years resulted in the molecular and functional characterization of the protein inventory of the synaptic vesicle compartment. Nowadays advances in membrane protein separation and mass spectrometry have dramatically promoted this field resulting in a detailed description of the synaptic vesicle proteome and making synaptic vesicles the best characterized organelles. Recently, the proteome of the active zone was identified using the docked synaptic vesicles as target for immunoisolation. Combining gel-based protein separation techniques, mass spectrometry, and immunodetection, a considerable variety of proteins has been detected in the active zone. This includes synaptic vesicle proteins, components of the presynaptic fusion and retrieval machinery, proteins involved in intracellular signal transduction, a large variety of adhesion molecules and proteins potentially involved in regulating the functional and structural dynamics of the presynapse. Here, we discuss recent information concerning the proteome of the presynaptic active zone, focusing on proteins that are potentially involved in the short- and long-term structural modulation of the mature presynaptic compartment. In addition, we discuss the functional relevance of amyloid precursor protein in these membrane fractions and the putative interplay with direct or indirect interaction partners in the active zone.Experimental Brain Research 02/2012; 217(3-4):449-61. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Insulin performs unique functions within the CNS. Produced nearly exclusively by the pancreas, insulin crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) using a saturable transporter, affecting feeding and cognition through CNS mechanisms largely independent of glucose utilization. Whereas peripheral insulin acts primarily as a metabolic regulatory hormone, CNS insulin has an array of effects on brain that may more closely resemble the actions of the ancestral insulin molecule. Brain endothelial cells (BECs), the cells that form the vascular BBB and contain the transporter that translocates insulin from blood to brain, are themselves regulated by insulin. The insulin transporter is altered by physiological and pathological factors including hyperglycemia and the diabetic state. The latter can lead to BBB disruption. Pericytes, pluripotent cells in intimate contact with the BECs, protect the integrity of the BBB and its ability to transport insulin. Most of insulin's known actions within the CNS are mediated through two canonical pathways, the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3)/Akt and Ras/mitogen activated kinase (MAPK) cascades. Resistance to insulin action within the CNS, sometimes referred to as diabetes mellitus type III, is associated with peripheral insulin resistance, but it is possible that variable hormonal resistance syndromes exist so that resistance at one tissue bed may be independent of that at others. CNS insulin resistance is associated with Alzheimer's disease, depression, and impaired baroreceptor gain in pregnancy. These aspects of CNS insulin action and the control of its entry by the BBB are likely only a small part of the story of insulin within the brain.Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics 07/2012; 136(1):82-93. · 7.79 Impact Factor