H-89, a Non-Specific Inhibitor of Protein Kinase A, Promotes Post-Ischemic Cardiac Contractile Recovery and Reduces Infarct Size

Hatter Institute for Cardiology Research and Servier Heart Failure Laboratory, University of Cape Town Faculty of Health Sciences, South Africa.
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology (Impact Factor: 2.14). 04/2005; 45(4):341-7. DOI: 10.1097/01.fjc.0000156825.80951.14
Source: PubMed


Myocardial ischemia is associated with increased production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), with potentially deleterious effects. We hypothesized that the ischemia-induced activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), could beneficially be inhibited by a PKA-inhibitor N-(2-[p-bromocinnamylamino]ethyl)-5-isoquinoline-sulfonamide (H-89). H-89 when given to isolated perfused rat hearts before 30 minutes of global ischemia-reperfusion improved postischemic function and decreased infarct size. In another series, H-89 administered prior to preconditioning by 10 minutes of transient global ischemia decreased PKA activity (measured at the end of the preconditioning protocol) and augmented postischemic mechanical recovery. H-89 given for 5 minutes before the 10 minutes of transient ischemia further decreased infarct size from 13.4 +/- 1.0% (preconditioning alone) to 7.0 +/- 0.93 (P < 0.01). In a third series, forskolin (0.3 muM, 5 minutes, 10 minutes washout prior to ischemia) increased PKA activity and reduced infarct size. Prior H-89 decreased PKA activity after 5 minutes of forskolin and further reduced infarct size versus forskolin alone. In conclusion, three procedures increased postischemic recovery and reduced infarct size: H-89; preconditioning by transient ischemia; or forskolin as a preconditioning-mimetic. PKA-inhibition by H-89 further decreased infarct size beyond preconditioning or forskolin. Despite the reservation that H-89 could be non-selective in its actions, we propose H-89 as a candidate cardioprotective agent.

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    • "This finding is somewhat contradictory to previous studies. In isolated rat hearts, H-89 (2 μmol/L) improved postischemic function and decreased infarct size when injected 3 min before 30 min of global ischemia-reperfusion and further reduced the infarct size when administered 3 min prior to ischemic or forskolin (a cAMP-elevating agents) preconditioning33. However, when delivered at 1.35 μg/kg per minute in dogs or at 10 μmol/L in isolated rat hearts approximately 30 min before preconditioning, H-89 completely blunted the infarct-limitation effect of preconditioning12,34. Therefore, the partial inhibition of H-89 on SIM cardioprotection in our study most likely occurred because H-89 was delivered later than SIM, and the contradiction between these studies might be explained by the differences in H-89 dosage, experimental protocols, and animal species. "
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    ABSTRACT: The cholesterol-lowering drugs statins could enhance the activities of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and protect myocardium during ischemia and reperfusion. The aim of this study was to examine whether protein kinase A (PKA) was involved in statin-mediated eNOS phosphorylation and cardioprotection. 6-Month-old Chinese minipigs (20-30 kg) underwent a 1.5-h occlusion and 3-h reperfusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). In the sham group, the LAD was encircled by a suture but not occluded. Hemodynamic and cardiac function was monitored using a polygraph. Plasma activity of creatine kinase and the tissue activities of PKA and NOS were measured spectrophotometrically. p-CREB, eNOS and p-eNOS levels were detected using Western blotting. Sizes of the area at risk, the area of no-reflow and the area of necrosis were measured morphologically. Pretreatment of the animals with simvastatin (SIM, 2 mg/kg, po) before reperfusion significantly decreased the plasma activity of creatine kinase, an index of myocardial necrosis, and reduced the no-reflow size (from 50.4%±2.4% to 36.1%±2.1%, P<0.01) and the infarct size (from 79.0%±2.7% to 64.1%±4.5%, P<0.01). SIM significantly increased the activities of PKA and constitutive NOS, and increased Ser(133) p-CREB protein, Ser(1179) p-eNOS, and Ser(635) p-eNOS in ischemic myocardium. Intravenous infusion of the PKA inhibitor H-89 (1 μg·kg(-1)·min(-1)) partially abrogated the SIM-induced cardioprotection and eNOS phosphorylation. In contrast, intravenous infusion of the eNOS inhibitor L-NNA (10 mg·kg(-1)) completely abrogated the SIM-induced cardioprotection and eNOS phosphorylation during ischemia and reperfusion, but did not affect the activity of PKA. Pretreatment with a single dose of SIM 2.5 h before reperfusion attenuates myocardial no-reflow and infarction through increasing eNOS phosphorylation at Ser(1179) and Ser(635) that was partially mediated via the PKA signaling pathway.
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