Uncharged tRNA and sensing of amino acid deficiency in mammalian piriform cortex.
ABSTRACT Recognizing a deficiency of indispensable amino acids (IAAs) for protein synthesis is vital for dietary selection in metazoans, including humans. Cells in the brain's anterior piriform cortex (APC) are sensitive to IAA deficiency, signaling diet rejection and foraging for complementary IAA sources, but the mechanism is unknown. Here we report that the mechanism for recognizing IAA-deficient foods follows the conserved general control (GC) system, wherein uncharged transfer RNA induces phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) via the GC nonderepressing 2 (GCN2) kinase. Thus, a basic mechanism of nutritional stress management functions in mammalian brain to guide food selection for survival.
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ABSTRACT: During progression, tumors become refractory to the offensive weapons of the immune system. It has been known for a long time that the tumor microenvironment presents a profound modification in the metabolism of arachidonic acid and amino acids such as l-triptophan and l-arginine. However, only in the last decade we have started to appreciate how these changes might cause dysfunctions in cells of both adaptive and innate immune system. The knowledge of these complex and partially interconnected metabolic pathways is offering new targets for an integrated pharmacological approach aiming at freeing tumor-specific T lymphocytes from the latches of cancer influence.Seminars in Cancer Biology 09/2007; 17(4):309-16. · 6.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In mammals, the impact of nutrients on gene expression has become an important area of research. Because amino acids have multiple and important functions, their homeostasis has to be finely maintained. However, amino acidemia can be affected in some nutritional conditions and by various forms of stress. Consequently, mammals have to adjust physiological functions involved in the adaptation to amino acid availability. Part of this regulation involves the modulation of numerous gene expression. It has been shown that amino acids by themselves can modify the expression of target genes. This review focuses on the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the control of mammalian gene expression in response to amino acid limitation.BioFactors 06/2009; 35(3):249-57. · 4.93 Impact Factor
Article: An upstream ORF with non-AUG start codon is translated in vivo but dispensable for translational control of GCN4 mRNA.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Genome-wide analysis of ribosome locations in mRNAs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has revealed the translation of upstream open reading frames that initiate with near-cognate start codons in many transcripts. Two such non-translation initiation codon (AUG)-initiated upstream open reading frames (uORFs) (nAuORFs 1 and 2) occur in GCN4 mRNA upstream of the four AUG-initiated uORFs (uORFs 1-4) that regulate GCN4 translation. We verified that nAuORF2 is translated in vivo by demonstrating β-galactosidase production from lacZ coding sequences fused to nAuORF2, in a manner abolished by replacing its non-AUG initiation codon (AUA) start codon with the non-cognate triplet AAA, whereas translation of nAuORF1 was not detected. Importantly, replacing the near-cognate start codons of both nAuORFs with non-cognate triplets had little or no effect on the repression of GCN4 translation in non-starved cells, nor on its derepression in response to histidine limitation, nutritional shift-down or treatment with rapamycin, hydrogen peroxide or methyl methanesulfonate. Additionally, we found no evidence that initiation from the AUA codon of nAuORF2 is substantially elevated, or dependent on Gcn2, the sole eIF2α kinase of yeast, in histidine-deprived cells. Thus, although nAuORF2 is translated in vivo, it appears that this event is not stimulated by eIF2α phosphorylation nor significantly influences GCN4 translational induction under various starvation or stress conditions.Nucleic Acids Research 01/2011; 39(8):3128-40. · 8.03 Impact Factor