The brown adipose cell: a unique model for understanding the molecular mechanism of insulin resistance.
ABSTRACT Type 2 diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is a complex metabolic disease that occurs when insulin secretion can no longer compensate insulin resistance in peripheral tissues. At the molecular level, insulin resistance correlates with impaired insulin signaling. This review provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms of insulin action and resistance in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and pinpoints the role of BAT in the control of glucose homeostasis.
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ABSTRACT: Brown adipose tissue [BAT] metabolism in vivo is vital for the development of novel strategies in combating obesity and diabetes. Currently, BAT is activated at low temperatures and measured using 2-deoxy-2-18F-fluoro-D-glucose [18F-FDG] positron-emission tomography [PET]. We report the use of β3-adrenergic receptor-mediated activation of BAT at ambient temperatures using (R, R)-5-[2-[2,3-(3-chlorphenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl-amino]propyl]-1,3-benzodioxole-2,2-dicarboxylate, disodium salt [CL316,243] (a selective β3-adrenoceptor agonist) and measured by 18F-FDG PET/computed tomography [CT]. Control and CL316,243-treated (2 mg/kg) male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered with 18F-FDG for PET/CT studies and were compared to animals at cold temperatures. Receptor-blocking experiments were carried out using propranolol (5 mg/kg). Dose effects of CL316,243 were studied by injecting 0.1 to 1 mg/kg 30 min prior to 18F-FDG administration. Imaging results were confirmed by autoradiography, and histology was done to confirm BAT activation. CL316,243-activated interscapular BAT [IBAT], cervical, periaortic, and intercostal BATs were clearly visualized by PET. 18F-FDG uptake of IBAT was increased 12-fold by CL316,243 vs. 1.1-fold by cold exposure when compared to controls. 18F-FDG uptake of the CL-activated IBAT was reduced by 96.0% using intraperitoneal administration of propranolol. Average 18F-FDG uptake of IBAT increased 3.6-, 3.5-, and 7.6-fold by doses of 0.1, 0.5, and 1 mg/kg CL, respectively. Ex vivo 18F-FDG autoradiography and histology of transverse sections of IBAT confirmed intense uptake in the CL-activated group and activated IBAT visualized by PET. Our study indicated that BAT metabolic activity could be evaluated by 18F-FDG PET using CL316,243 at ambient temperature in the rodent model. This provides a feasible and reliable method to study BAT metabolism.EJNMMI research. 01/2011; 1(1):30.
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ABSTRACT: Nutritional recovery with a soyabean diet decreases body and fat weights when compared with a casein diet. We investigated whether the reduced adiposity observed in rats recovering from early-life malnutrition with a soyabean diet results from alterations in lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue (WAT) and/or brown adipose tissue (BAT). Male rats from mothers fed either 17 or 6 % protein during pregnancy and lactation were maintained on 17 % casein (CC and LC groups), 17 % soyabean (CS and LS groups) or 6 % casein (LL group) diets over 60 d. The rats maintained on a soyabean diet had similar relative food intakes, but lower body and retroperitoneal WAT weights and a reduced lipid content in the retroperitoneal WAT. The insulin levels were lower in the recovered rats and were elevated in those fed a soyabean diet. Serum T3 concentration and uncoupling protein 1 content in the BAT were decreased in the recovered rats. The thermogenic capacity of the BAT was not affected by the soyabean diet. The lipogenesis rate in the retroperitoneal WAT was similar in all of the groups except for the LL group, which had exacerbated lipogenesis. The enhancement of the lipolysis rate by isoproterenol was decreased in white adipocytes from the soyabean-recovered rats and was elevated in adipocytes from the soyabean-control rats. Thus, in animals maintained on a soyabean diet, the proportions of fat deposits are determined by the lipolysis rate, which differs depending on the previous nutritional status.The British journal of nutrition 12/2011; 108(6):1042-51. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies have demonstrated that cold stress results in increased accumulation of (18)F-FDG in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Although it has been assumed that this effect is associated with increased thermogenesis by BAT, direct measurements of this phenomenon have not been reported. In the current investigation, we evaluated the relationship between stimulation of (18)F-FDG accumulation in BAT by 3 stressors and heat production measured in vivo by thermal imaging. Male SKH-1 hairless mice were subjected to full-thickness thermal injury (30% of total body surface area), cold stress (4°C for 24 h), or cutaneous wounds. Groups of 6 animals with each treatment were kept fasting overnight and injected with (18)F-FDG. Sixty minutes after injection, the mice were sacrificed, and biodistribution was measured. Other groups of 6 animals subjected to the 3 stressors were studied by thermal imaging, and the difference in temperature between BAT and adjacent tissue was recorded (ΔT). Additional groups of 6 animals were studied by both thermal imaging and (18)F-FDG biodistribution in the same animals. Accumulation of (18)F-FDG in BAT was significantly (P < 0.0001) increased by all 3 treatments (burn, ∼5-fold; cold, ∼15-fold; and cutaneous wound, ∼15-fold), whereas accumulation by adjacent white adipose tissue was unchanged. Compared with sham control mice, in animals exposed to all 3 stressors, ΔTs showed significant (P < 0.001) increases. The ΔT between stressor groups was not significant; however, there was a highly significant linear correlation (r(2) = 0.835, P < 0.0001) between the ΔT measured in BAT versus adjacent tissue and (18)F-FDG accumulation. These results establish, for the first time to our knowledge, that changes in BAT temperature determined in vivo by thermal imaging parallel increases in (18)F-FDG accumulation.Journal of Nuclear Medicine 09/2011; 52(10):1616-20. · 5.56 Impact Factor