Prevalence of and risk factors for paratuberculosis in purebred beef cattle
ABSTRACT To estimate the prevalence of paratuberculosis in purebred beef cattle in Texas and identify risk factors for seropositivity.
4,579 purebred cattle from 115 beef ranches in Texas.
Blood was collected, and serum was analyzed for antibodies with a commercial ELISA. Fecal samples were collected and frozen at -80 degrees C until results of the ELISA were obtained, and feces from seropositive cattle were submitted for mycobacterial culture. Herd owners completed a survey form on management factors.
Results of the ELISA were positive for 137 of the 4,579 (3.0%) cattle, and 50 of the 115 (43.8%) herds had at least 1 seropositive animal. Results of mycobacterial culture were positive for 10 of the 137 (7.3%) seropositive cattle, and 9 of the 50 (18%) seropositive herds had at least 1 animal for which results of mycobacterial culture were positive. Risk factors for seropositivity included water source, use of dairy-type nurse cows, previous clinical signs of paratuberculosis, species of cattle (Bos taurus vs Bos indicus), and location.
Results suggested that seroprevalence of paratuberculosis among purebred beef cattle in Texas may be greater than seroprevalence among beef cattle in the United States as a whole; however, this difference could be attributable to breed or regional differences in infection rates or interference by cross-reacting organisms. Veterinarians should be aware of risk factors for paratuberculosis as well as the possibility that unexpected serologic results may be found in some herds.
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- "Thorne and Hardin (1997) tested 1,954 cattle from 19 dairy and 68 beef herds by ELISA and determined animal and herd-level prevalence of 8% and 5% and 74% and 40% for dairy and beef herds, respectively. Roussel et al. (2005) "
ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes the disease of cattle, Johne's. The economic impact of this disease includes early culling of infected cattle, reduced milk yield, and weight loss of cattle sold for slaughter. There is a possible link between MAP and Crohn's disease, a human inflammatory bowel disease. MAP is also a potential human food borne pathogen because it survives current pasteurization treatments. We review the current knowledge of MAP, Johne's disease and Crohn's disease and note directions for future work with this organism including rapid and economical detection, effective management plans and preventative measures.Critical Reviews in Microbiology 05/2011; 37(2):141-56. DOI:10.3109/1040841X.2010.532480 · 6.09 Impact Factor
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- "Its causing agent (MAP) has also been linked to Crohn's disease in humans; however, causation has not been established (Uzoigwe et al. 2007). Estimates of prevalence of MAP in cattle in several countries ranged from 1.6% to 18% (Lilenbaum et al. 2007), whereas prevalence of MAP in beef cattle in several states of the US fluctuated between 3% and 9% (Thorne and Hardin 1997; Roussel et al. 2005; Hill et al. 2003). "
ABSTRACT: The objective of this research was to assess the association between 4 cow reproductive and weight traits, and 2 preweaning calf traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis (0 = negative, 1 = suspect, 2 = weak-positive, and 3 = positive) in a multibreed herd of cows ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman (B). Cow data were 624 gestation lengths (GL), 358 records of time open (TO), 605 calving intervals (CI), and 1240 weight changes from November to weaning in September (WC) from 502 purebred and crossbred cows. Calf data consisted of 956 birth weights (BWT), and 923 weaning weights adjusted to 205 d of age (WW205) from 956 purebred and crossbred calves. Traits were analyzed individually using multibreed mixed models that assumed homogeneity of variances across breed groups. Covariances among random effects were assumed to be zero. Fixed effects were year, age of cow, sex of calf, year x age of cow interaction (except WC), age of cow x sex of calf interaction (only for WC), and covariates for B fraction of sire and cow, heterosis of cow and calf, and ELISA score. Random effects were sire (except for TO and CI), dam, and residual. Regression estimates of cow and calf traits on ELISA scores indicated that lower cow fertility (longer TO), lower ability of cows to maintain weight (negative WC), lower calf BWT, and lower calf WW205 were associated with higher cow ELISA scores. Further research on the effects of subclinical paratuberculosis in beef cattle at regional and national levels seems advisable considering the large potential economic cost of this disease.Tropical Animal Health and Production 12/2008; 41(6):851-8. DOI:10.1007/s11250-008-9262-y · 0.97 Impact Factor
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- "For the following scenario that we considered to be the most probable (Boelaert et al., 2000; Corti and Stephan, 2002; Dargatz et al., 2001; Douart 2002; Hacker et al., 2004; Hill et al., 2003; Hirst et al., 2004; Jakobsen et al., 2000; Jubb and Galvin, 2004; Kasravi and Nowrouzian, 2004; Manning and Collins, 2001; Muskens et al., 2000; Nielsen et al., 2000; Roussel et al., 2005; Sorensen et al., 2003; Tavornpanich et al., 2004; Van Schaik et al., 2003; Vanleeuwen et al., 2001; Wells and Wagner, 2000; Wells et al., 2002), 15,000 iterations were carried out: interherd prevalence ¼ 25% (Boelaert et al., 2000; Corti and Stephan, 2002; Dargatz et al., 2001; Jakobsen et al., 2000; Manning and Collins, 2001; Muskens et al., 2000; Nielsen et al., 2000; Vanleeuwen et al., 2001; Wells and Wagner, 2000; Wells et al., 2002), intraherd prevalence ¼ 4% (Douart, 2002; Hacker et al., 2004; Hill et al., 2003; Hirst et al., 2004; Jubb and Galvin, 2004; Kasravi and Nowrouzian, 2004; Roussel et al., 2005; Sorensen et al., 2003; Tavornpanich et al., 2004; Van Schaik et al., 2003; Wells et al., 2002), mean MAP concentration in the milk coming from the teat ¼ 10 MAP cells=mL (Giese and Ahrens, 2000; Lynch et al., 2007; Rademaker et al., 2007; Stabel et al., 2001), no fecal contam- ination. "
ABSTRACT: Conflicting laboratory-acquired data have been published about the heat resistance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the cause of the deadly paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) of ruminants. Results of surveys of the presence of MAP in industrially pasteurized milk from several countries are conflicting also. This paper critically reviews the available data on the heat resistance of MAP and, based on these studies, a quantitative model describing the probability of finding MAP in pasteurized milk under the conditions prevailing in industrialized countries was derived using Monte Carlo simulation. The simulation assesses the probability of detecting MAP in 50-mL samples of pasteurized milk as lower than 1%. Hypotheses are presented to explain why higher frequencies were found by some authors; these included improper pasteurization and cross-contamination in the analytical laboratory. Hypotheses implicating a high rate of inter- and intraherd prevalence of paratuberculosis or heavy contamination of raw milk by feces were rejected.Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 02/2007; 4(4):433-47. DOI:10.1089/fpd.2007.0028 · 2.09 Impact Factor