Regulatory roles and molecular signaling of TNF family members in osteoclasts.
ABSTRACT The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family has been one of the most intensively studied families of proteins in the past two decades. The TNF family constitutes 19 members that mediate diverse biological functions in a variety of cellular systems. The TNF family members regulate cellular functions through binding to membrane-bound receptors belonging to the TNF receptor (TNFR) family. Members of the TNFR family lack intrinsic kinase activity and thus they initiate signaling by interacting intracellular signaling molecules such as TNFR associated factor (TRAF), TNFR associated death domain (TRADD) and Fas-associated death domain (FADD). In bone metabolism, it has been shown that numerous TNF family members including receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL), TNF-alpha, Fas ligand (FasL) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) play pivotal roles in the differentiation, function, survival and/or apoptosis of osteoclasts, the principal bone-resorbing cells. These TNF family members not only regulate physiological bone remodeling but they are also implicated in the pathogenesis of various bone diseases such as osteoporosis and bone loss in inflammatory conditions. This review will focus on our current understanding of the regulatory roles and molecular signaling of these TNF family members in osteoclasts.
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ABSTRACT: Study Design Experimental animal study. Purpose To evaluate pain-related behavior and changes in nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB), receptor activator of NF-kB (RANK), and ligand (RANKL) in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) after combined sciatic nerve compression and nucleus pulposus (NP) application in rats. Overview of Literature The pathological mechanisms underlying pain from lumbar-disc herniation have not been fully elucidated. RANKL are transcriptional regulators of inflammatory cytokines. Our aim was to evaluate pain-related behavior and RANKL expression in DRG after sciatic-nerve compression and application of NP in rats. Methods Mechanical hyperalgesia and RANKL expression were assessed in three groups of rats: NP+sciatic nerve compression (2 seconds), sham-operated, and controls (n=20 each). Mechanical hyperalgesia was measured every other day for 3 weeks using von Frey filaments. RANKL expression in L5 DRGs was examined at five and ten days after surgery using immunohistochemistry. Results Mechanical hyperalgesia was observed over the 12-day observation period in the NP+nerve compression group, but not in the control and sham-operated animal groups (p<0.05). RANKL immunoreactivity was seen in the nuclei of L5 DRG neurons, and its expression was significantly upregulated in NP+nerve compression rats compared with control and sham-operated rats (p<0.01). Conclusions The exposure of sciatic nerves to mechanical compression and NP produces pain-related behavior and up-regulation of RANKL in DRG neurons. RANKL may play an important role in mediating pain after sciatic nerve injury with exposure to NP.Asian spine journal 10/2014; 8(5):557-64. DOI:10.4184/asj.2014.8.5.557
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ABSTRACT: Thiazolidinediones are synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonists used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clinical evidence indicates that thiazolidinediones increase fracture risks in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, but the mechanism by which thiazolidinediones augment fracture risks is not fully understood. Several groups recently demonstrated that thiazolidinediones stimulate osteoclast formation, thus proposing that thiazolidinediones induce bone loss in part by prompting osteoclastogenesis. However, numerous other studies showed that thiazolidinediones inhibit osteoclast formation. Moreover, the molecular mechanism by which thiazolidinediones modulate osteoclastogenesis is not fully understood. Here we independently address the role of thiazolidinediones in osteoclastogenesis in vitro and furthermore investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the in vitro effects of thiazolidinediones on osteoclastogenesis. Our in vitro data indicate that thiazolidinediones dose-dependently inhibit osteoclastogenesis from bone marrow macrophages, but the inhibitory effect is considerably reduced when bone marrow macrophages are pretreated with RANKL. In vitro mechanistic studies reveal that thiazolidinediones inhibit osteoclastogenesis not by impairing RANKL-induced activation of the NF-κB, JNK, p38 and ERK pathways in bone marrow macrophages. Nonetheless, thiazolidinediones inhibit osteoclastogenesis by suppressing RANKL-induced expression of NFATc1 and c-Fos, two key transcriptional regulators of osteoclastogenesis, in bone marrow macrophages. In addition, thiazolidinediones inhibit the RANKL-induced expression of osteoclast genes encoding matrix metalloproteinase 9, cathepsin K, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and carbonic anhydrase II in bone marrow macrophages. However, the ability of thiazolidinediones to inhibit the expression of NFATc1, c-Fos and the four osteoclast genes is notably weakened in RANKL-pretreated bone marrow macrophages. These in vitro studies have not only independently demonstrated that thiazolidinediones exert inhibitory effects on osteoclastogenesis but have also revealed crucial new insights into the molecular mechanism by which thiazolidinediones inhibit osteoclastogenesis.PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e102706. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0102706 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the present study, the effects of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) and nanocrystalline Si-substituted hydroxyapatite (nano-SiHA) on osteoclast differentiation and resorptive activity have been evaluated in vitro using osteoclast-like cells. The action of these materials on proinflammatory and reparative macrophage populations was also studied. Nano-SiHA disks delayed the osteoclast differentiation and decreased the resorptive activity of these cells on their surface, as compared to nano-HA samples, without affecting cell viability. Powdered nano-SiHA also induced an increase of the reparative macrophage population. These results along with the beneficial effects on osteoblasts previously observed with powdered nano-SiHA suggest the potential of this biomaterial for modulating the fundamental processes of bone formation and turnover, preventing bone resorption and enhancing bone formation at implantation sites in treatment of osteoporotic bone and in bone repair and regeneration.04/2014; 2(19). DOI:10.1039/C3TB21697G