Formation of graphitic structures in cobalt- and nickel-doped carbon aerogels.
ABSTRACT We have prepared carbon aerogels (CAs) doped with cobalt or nickel through sol-gel polymerization of formaldehyde with the potassium salt of 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, followed by ion exchange with M(NO3)2 (where M = Co2+ or Ni2+), supercritical drying with liquid CO2, and carbonization at temperatures between 400 and 1050 degrees C under a N2 atmosphere. The nanostructures of these metal-doped carbon aerogels were characterized by elemental analysis, nitrogen adsorption, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Metallic nickel and cobalt nanoparticles are generated during the carbonization process at about 400 and 450 degrees C, respectively, forming nanoparticles that are approximately 4 nm in diameter. The sizes and size dispersion of the metal particles increase with increasing carbonization temperatures for both materials. The carbon frameworks of the Ni- and Co-doped aerogels carbonized below 600 degrees C mainly consist of interconnected carbon particles with a size of 15-30 nm. When the samples are pyrolyzed at 1050 degrees C, the growth of graphitic nanoribbons with different curvatures is observed in the Ni- and Co-doped carbon aerogel materials. The distance of graphite layers in the nanoribbons is approximately 0.38 nm. These metal-doped CAs retain the overall open cell structure of metal-free CAs, exhibiting high surface areas and pore diameters in the micro- and mesoporic region.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that aspirations induced by unilateral vagotomy destabilise ventilatory pattern during swallowing. The study was carried out on 15 Wistar rats (2-3 months, 290-350 g) using whole-body plethysmography and video recordings, before and after unilateral vagotomy. The rats were given water ad libitum via a baby bottle fitted with a nipple. The experiment was continued until rest ventilation and swallowing periods were identified on the video recordings. Following the sectioning of the right vagus nerve, all the rats presented bronchial aspirations and unilateral vocal cord paralysis in the aperture position. After the vagotomy there were no changes at rest of the ventilatory variables compared to healthy controls. In healthy animals during swallowing, we observed a decrease in total ventilatory time (TTOT), a decrease in inspiratory time (TI) (p < 0.001), a decrease in expiratory time (TE) (p < 0.001), no change in tidal volume (VT) and an increase in mean inspiratory time (VT/TI) (p < 0.001) compared to the rest period. Animals with chronic aspiration presented during swallowing an increase in TTOT (p < 0.001), TI (p < 0.01), and TE (p < 0.001), no change in VT and a decrease of VT/TI (p < 0.001) and a modification of ventilatory pattern. In conclusion, our results confirmed that swallowing modifies ventilation in healthy animals and that chronic aspiration decreases ventilatory drive and modifies ventilatory pattern during swallowing.Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology 02/2011; 176(3):98-102. · 2.05 Impact Factor
- 12/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-913-4
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ABSTRACT: Three-dimensional, hierarchically ordered, porous carbon (HOPC) with designed porous textures, serving as an ion-buffering reservoir, an ion-transport channel, and a charge-storage material, is expected to be advanced an energy material for high-rate supercapacitors. Herein, HOPC without/with partially graphitic nanostructures have been directly synthesized by means of a simple one-pot synthesis procedure. The designed porous textures of the 3D HOPC materials are composed of highly ordered, fcc macroporous (300 nm), interconnected porous structures, including macroporous windows (170 nm), hexagonally ordered mesopores (5.0 nm), and useful micropores (1.2 nm). 3D HOPC-g-1000 (g=graphitic, 1000=pyrolysis temperature of 1000 °C) with partially graphitic nanostructures has a low specific surface area (296 m(2) g(-1)) and a low gravimetric specific capacitance (73.4 F g(-1) at 3 mV s(-1)), but improved electrical conductivity, better rate performance, higher electrolyte accessibility (24.8 μF cm(-2) at 3 mV s(-1)), faster frequency response (≈1 Hz), and excellent cycling performance (>5400 cycles). The specific capacitance per surface area is higher than that of conventional porous carbons, carbon nanotubes, and modified graphene (10-19 μF cm(-2)).ChemSusChem 03/2012; 5(3):563-71. · 7.48 Impact Factor