Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1: a common denominator in obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
ABSTRACT A classical perspective of cardiovascular risk does not adequately account for all of the cardiovascular events associated with obesity and diabetes. The combination of hypertriglyceridemia, glucose intolerance and inflammation is linked with increased production of the primary inhibitor of endogenous thrombolysis, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Recent data suggest that PAI-1 contributes directly to the complications of obesity, including type 2 diabetes, coronary arterial thrombi, and may even influence the accumulation of visceral fat. Therefore, direct inhibition of PAI-1 might not only provide a new therapeutic strategy for reducing cardiovascular risk, but may also have beneficial effects on obesity and insulin resistance.
SourceAvailable from: Lucia Marseglia[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Obesity, a social problem worldwide, is characterized by an increase in body weight that results in excessive fat accumulation. Obesity is a major cause of morbidity and mortality and leads to several diseases, including metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular, fatty liver diseases, and cancer. Growing evidence allows us to understand the critical role of adipose tissue in controlling the physic-pathological mechanisms of obesity and related comorbidities. Recently, adipose tissue, especially in the visceral compartment, has been considered not only as a simple energy depository tissue, but also as an active endocrine organ releasing a variety of biologically active molecules known as adipocytokines or adipokines. Based on the complex interplay between adipokines, obesity is also characterized by chronic low grade inflammation with permanently increased oxidative stress (OS). Over-expression of oxidative stress damages cellular structures together with under-production of anti-oxidant mechanisms, leading to the development of obesity-related complications. The aim of this review is to summarize what is known in the relationship between OS in obesity and obesity-related diseases.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2014; 16(1):378-400. DOI:10.3390/ijms16010378 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PAI-1, a glycoprotein from the serpin family and the main inhibitor of tPA and uPA, plays an essential role in the regulation of intra and extravascular fibrinolysis by inhibiting the formation of plasmin from plasminogen. PAI-1 is also involved in pathological processes such as thromboembolic diseases, atherosclerosis, fibrosis and cancer. The inhibition of PAI-1 activity by small organic molecules has been observed in vitro and with some in vivo models. Based on these findings, PAI-1 appears as a potential therapeutic target for several pathological conditions. Over the past decades, many efforts have therefore been devoted to developing PAI-1 inhibitors. This article provides an overview of the publishing activity on small organic molecules used as PAI-1 inhibitors. The chemical synthesis of the most potent inhibitors as well as their biological and biochemical evaluations is also presented.European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 03/2015; 92. DOI:10.1016/j.ejmech.2015.01.010 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although mitochondrial dysfunction is often accompanied by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, we previously showed that an increase in random somatic mtDNA mutations does not result in increased oxidative stress. Normal levels of ROS and oxidative stress could also be a result of an active compensatory mechanism such as a mild increase in proton leak. Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) was proposed to play such a role in many physiological situations. However, we show that upregulation of UCP2 in mtDNA mutator mice is not associated with altered proton leak kinetics or ROS production, challenging the current view on the role of UCP2 in energy metabolism. Instead, our results argue that high UCP2 levels allow better utilization of fatty acid oxidation resulting in a beneficial effect on mitochondrial function in heart, postponing systemic lactic acidosis and resulting in longer lifespan in these mice. This study proposes a novel mechanism for an adaptive response to mitochondrial cardiomyopathy that links changes in metabolism to amelioration of respiratory chain deficiency and longer lifespan.PLoS Genetics 06/2014; 10(6):e1004385. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004385 · 8.52 Impact Factor