The effect of tetrathiomolybdate on cytokine expression, angiogenesis, and tumor growth in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck
ABSTRACT To assess the effect of tetrathiomolybdate on cytokine expression, angiogenesis, and tumor growth rate in human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
Three human SCC cell lines were used in this study for both in vitro and in vivo investigations. Conditioned media from untreated and tetrathiomolybdate-treated cell lines were compared with regard to cytokine levels, endothelial cell chemotaxis, endothelial cell tubule formation, and migration and the ability to induce angiogenesis in a rat aortic ring array. In vivo UM-SCC-38 was seeded onto tissue-engineered scaffolds and surgically implanted into the flanks of immunodeficient mice. Tumor growth rates and the level of angiogenesis were compared after 2 weeks of therapy.
A tertiary care facility.
In this study, we demonstrate that tetrathiomolybdate significantly decreases the secretion of interleukin 6 and basic fibroblast growth factor by head and neck SCC (HNSCC) cell lines in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrate that tetrathiomolybdate significantly decreases the secretion of interleukin 6 and basic fibroblast growth factor by HNSCC cell lines in vitro. Furthermore, tetrathiomolybdate treatment of HNSCC cell lines results in significantly decreased endothelial cell chemotaxis, tubule formation, and neovascularization in a rat aortic ring assay. This in vitro evidence of decreased angiogenesis by tetrathiomolybdate is confirmed in vivo by using a severe combined immunodeficiency disorder mouse model in which tetrathiomolybdate therapy is shown to prevent human blood vessel formation. Finally, human HNSCC implanted into immunodeficient mice grow to a much larger size in untreated mice compared with those treated with 0.7 mL/kg per day of oral tetrathiomolybdate.
These findings illustrate the ability of tetrathiomolybdate to down-regulate proinflammatory and proangiogenic cytokines in HNSCC. These observations are potentially exciting from a clinical perspective because a global decrease in these cytokines may decrease tumor aggressiveness and reverse the resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy seen in this tumor type.
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ABSTRACT: GHHPH is the peptide repeat present in histidine-proline rich glycoprotein (HPRG), a plasma glycoprotein involved in angiogenesis process. The copper(II) ions interaction with mono (Ac-GHHPHG-NH(2)) and its bis-repeat (Ac-GHHPHGHHPHG-NH(2)) was investigated by means of potentiometric and spectroscopic techniques. To single out the copper(II) coordination environments of different species formed with Ac-GHHPHG-NH(2), three single point mutated peptides were also synthesized and their ability to coordinate Cu(2+) investigated. Ac-GHHPHG-NH(2) binds Cu(2+) by the imidazole side chain and the amide nitrogen deprotonation that takes place towards the N-terminus. The bis-repeat is able to bind Cu(2+) more efficiently than Ac-GHHPHG-NH(2). This difference is not only due to the number of His residues in the sequence but also to the different binding sites. In fact, the comparison of the potentiometric and spectroscopic data of the copper(II) complexes with a bis-repeatPeg construct Ac-(GHHPHG)-Peg-(GHHPHG)-NH(2) and those of the metal complexes with Ac-HGHH-NH(2), indicates that the central HGHH amino acid sequence is the main copper(II) binding site.Journal of inorganic biochemistry 03/2012; 111:59-69. DOI:10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2012.02.027 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The metastatic spread of solid tumors is directly or indirectly responsible for most cancer-related deaths. Tumor metastasis is very complex and this process requires a tumor cell to acquire enhanced motility, invasiveness and anoikis resistance to successfully establish a tumor at a distal site. Metastatic potential of tumor cells is directly correlated with the expression levels of several angiogenic cytokines. Copper is a mandatory cofactor for the function of many of these angiogenic mediators as well as other proteins that play an important role in tumor cell motility and invasiveness. We have previously shown that tetrathiomolybdate (TM) is a potent chelator of copper and it mediates its anti-tumor effects by suppressing tumor angiogenesis. However, very little is known about the effect of TM on tumor cell function and tumor metastasis. In this study, we explored the mechanisms underlying TM-mediated inhibition of tumor metastasis. We used two in vivo models to examine the effects of TM on tumor metastasis. Animals treated with TM showed a significant decrease in lung metastasis in both in vivo models as compared to the control group. In addition, tumor cells from the lungs of TM treated animals developed significantly smaller colonies and these colonies had significantly fewer tumor cells. TM treatment significantly decreased tumor cell motility and invasiveness by inhibiting lysyl oxidase (LOX) activity, FAK activation and MMP2 levels. Furthermore, TM treatment significantly enhanced tumor cell anoikis by activating p38 MAPK cell death pathway and by downregulating XIAP survival protein expression. Taken together, these results suggest that TM is a potent suppressor of head and neck tumor metastasis by modulating key regulators of tumor cell motility, invasiveness and anoikis resistance.Molecular Cancer 08/2010; 9:206. DOI:10.1186/1476-4598-9-206 · 5.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Head and neck cancers are heavily infiltrated by immune cells, the significance of which is complex. The natural immune response against head and neck tumors, including anti-human papillomavirus (HPV) T cells, and humoral responses has been clearly documented. However, during the course of tumor progression, co-option of the immune system by tumor cells for their own advantage and increased resistance of tumor cells to immune attack also occur. Inflammation and immune subversion to support angiogenesis are key factors promoting tumor growth. Only a better understanding of this tumor–host interaction will permit a rational design of new immunotherapeutic approaches combining immunostimulation with drugs endowed with the ability to counteract immunoevasion mechanisms. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2010Head & Neck 01/2010; 32(7):946 - 958. DOI:10.1002/hed.21346 · 3.01 Impact Factor