The effects of cricoid pressure, remifentanil, and propofol on esophageal motility and the lower esophageal sphincter
ABSTRACT Cricoid pressure is the gold standard during the induction of anesthesia when there is a risk of aspiration of gastric contents. However, the effect of cricoid pressure during the different steps of complete anesthesia induction has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cricoid pressure, remifentanil, and propofol on lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and esophageal motility. We recorded LES pressure (LESP) and calculated barrier pressure ([BrP] = LESP - gastric pressure) in 10 healthy volunteers using a Dent sleeve device. There was a significant decrease in LESP and BrP when a cricoid pressure of 30 N was performed in the awake volunteers (P < 0.05). However, this effect was not seen during the infusion of remifentanil 0.2 microg . kg(-1) . min(-1). Remifentanil per se or together with a bolus dose of propofol 1 mg/kg IV did not induce any statistical change in LESP or BrP. Remifentanil abolished spontaneous esophageal motility and completely eliminated the experience of discomfort induced by cricoid pressure. In conclusion, cricoid pressure of 30 N induced a decrease of LESP and BrP in awake volunteers. These effects were not seen during the remifentanil infusion. This shows the importance of when to apply cricoid pressure during rapid-sequence induction.
SourceAvailable from: Sebastian Russo[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The use of extraglottic airway devices (EGA) is well accepted for airway management for certain classic indications such as general anaesthesia during limb surgery in the supine position. Furthermore, EGA have been deemed a useful tool during the management of an unrecognized difficult airway. On the other hand, the use of EGA has been controversially discussed for advanced indications such as during general anaesthesia during laparoscopic surgery and in coexisting morbid obesity. This article provides an evidence based review of the role of EGA during a variety of indications and is designed to assist with the decision making process of whether an EGA may or may not be appropriate for a particular indication. Moreover, recommendations are given for advanced indications.ains · Anästhesiologie · Intensivmedizin 03/2014; 49(3):152-61. DOI:10.1055/s-0034-1372229 · 0.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Remifentanil is widely used for monitored anesthesia care in spontaneously breathing patients. However, the authors' previous studies have shown that remifentanil induces subjective swallowing difficulties, which may increase the risk of aspiration. Twenty-five healthy volunteers participated in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over trial at the University Hospital in Örebro, Örebro, Sweden. The volunteers were studied on two different occasions during which they received either remifentanil with an effect-site target concentration of 3 ng/ml or saline over 1 h. A radionuclide tracer was infused simultaneously into the nasopharynx at a rate of 0.1 ml/min. Aspiration was determined by lung scans, and subjective swallowing difficulties and grip strength were evaluated. The primary outcome was the difference in occurrence of aspiration between remifentanil and placebo treatments. The secondary outcomes were differences in swallowing difficulty and grip strength and the association between aspiration and swallowing difficulty. During remifentanil and placebo infusion, 48 and 12% of the volunteers aspirated, respectively, difference: 36% (95% CI, 10 to 62%). A similar significant difference was found for swallowing difficulties but not for the association between aspiration and swallowing. No difference was found in grip strength between the two treatments. Remifentanil infusion at concentrations used in monitored anesthesia care increases the incidence of aspiration. However, the subjective swallowing difficulty induced by remifentanil is not indicative of the aspiration risk.Anesthesiology 03/2014; 121(1). DOI:10.1097/ALN.0000000000000202 · 6.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Oropharyngeal dysphagia is very rare in young adults. Thoracic dysphagia work-up must include upper GI endoscopy and esophageal biopsies, to exclude eosinophilic esophagitis, which requires specific treatment with corticosteroids and endoscopic dilations. Esophageal manometry and barium swallow must be performed if upper GI endoscopy and biopsies are negative. High-resolution esophageal manometry, by disclosing a true functional imaging of swallow, appears as a real breakthrough for the diagnosis of dysphagia occurring after antireflux and bariatric surgery.Gastroentérologie Clinique et Biologique 10/2009; 33(s 10–11):F82–F87. DOI:10.1016/j.gcb.2009.07.027 · 1.14 Impact Factor