The effects of cricoid pressure, remifentanil, and propofol on esophageal motility and the lower esophageal sphincter

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Orebro University Hospital, 701 85 Orebro, Sweden.
Anesthesia & Analgesia (Impact Factor: 3.42). 04/2005; 100(4):1200-3. DOI: 10.1213/01.ANE.0000147508.31879.38
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cricoid pressure is the gold standard during the induction of anesthesia when there is a risk of aspiration of gastric contents. However, the effect of cricoid pressure during the different steps of complete anesthesia induction has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cricoid pressure, remifentanil, and propofol on lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and esophageal motility. We recorded LES pressure (LESP) and calculated barrier pressure ([BrP] = LESP - gastric pressure) in 10 healthy volunteers using a Dent sleeve device. There was a significant decrease in LESP and BrP when a cricoid pressure of 30 N was performed in the awake volunteers (P < 0.05). However, this effect was not seen during the infusion of remifentanil 0.2 microg . kg(-1) . min(-1). Remifentanil per se or together with a bolus dose of propofol 1 mg/kg IV did not induce any statistical change in LESP or BrP. Remifentanil abolished spontaneous esophageal motility and completely eliminated the experience of discomfort induced by cricoid pressure. In conclusion, cricoid pressure of 30 N induced a decrease of LESP and BrP in awake volunteers. These effects were not seen during the remifentanil infusion. This shows the importance of when to apply cricoid pressure during rapid-sequence induction.

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    ABSTRACT: Quantifications of gastro-oesophageal anatomy in cadavers have led some to identify the lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) with the anatomical gastric sling-clasp fibres at the oesophago-cardiac junction (OCJ). However, in vivo studies have led others to argue for two overlapping components proximally displaced from the OCJ: an extrinsic crural sphincter of skeletal muscle and an intrinsic physiological sphincter of circular smooth-muscle fibres within the abdominal oesophagus. Our aims were to separate and quantify in vivo the skeletal and smooth muscle sphincteric components pharmacologically and clarify the description of the LOS. In two protocols an endoluminal ultrasound-manometry assembly was drawn through the human gastro-oesophageal segment to correlate sphincteric pressure with the anatomic crus. In protocol I, fifteen normal subjects maintained the costal diaphragm at inferior/superior positions by full inspiration/expiration (FI/FE) during pull-throughs. These were repeated after administering atropine to suppress the cholinergic smooth-muscle sphincter. The cholinergic component was reconstructed by subtracting the atropine-resistant pressures from the full pressures, referenced to the anatomic crus. To evaluate the extent to which the cholinergic contribution approximated the full smooth-muscle sphincter, in protocol II seven patients undergoing general anaesthesia for non-oesophageal pathology were administered cisatracurium to paralyse the crus. The smooth-muscle sphincter pressures were measured after lung inflation to approximate FI. The cholinergic smooth-muscle pressure profile in protocol I (FI) matched closely the post-cisatracurium smooth-muscle pressure profile in protocol II, and the atropine-resistant pressure profiles correlated spatially with the crural sling during diaphragmatic displacement. Thus, the atropine-resistant and cholinergic pressure contributions in protocol I approximated the skeletal and smooth muscle sphincteric components. The smooth-muscle pressures had well-defined upper and lower peaks. The upper peak overlapped and displaced rigidly with the crural sling, while the distal peak separated from the crus/upper-peak by 1.1 cm between FI and FE. These results suggest the existence of separate upper and lower intrinsic smooth-muscle components. The 'upper LOS' overlaps and displaces with the crural sling consistent with a physiological LOS. The distal smooth-muscle pressure peak defines a 'lower LOS' that likely reflects the gastric sling/clasp muscle fibres at the OCJ. The distinct physiology of these three components may underlie aspects of normal sphincteric function, and complexity of sphincter dysfunction.
    The Journal of Physiology 06/2007; 580(Pt.3):961-75. DOI:10.1113/jphysiol.2006.124032 · 4.54 Impact Factor


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