Rapid analysis of trace levels of antibiotic polyether ionophores in surface water by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography with ion trap tandem mass spectrometric detection
ABSTRACT The occurrence of antibiotics in surface and ground water is an emerging area of interest due to the potential impacts of these compounds on the environment. This paper details a rapid, sensitive and reliable analytical method for the determination of monensin A and B, salinomycin and narasin A in surface water using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) with selected reaction monitoring (SRM). Several product ions as sodiated sodium salts for MS-MS detection have been identified and documented with their proposed fragmentation pathways. Statistical analysis for determination of the method detection limit (MDL), accuracy and precision of the method is described. The average recovery of ionophore antibiotics in pristine and wastewater-influenced water was 96.0+/-8.3% and 93.8+/-9.1%, respectively. No matrix effect was seen with the surface water. MDL was between 0.03 and 0.05 microg/L for these antibiotic compounds in the surface water. The accuracy and day-to-day variation of method fell within acceptable ranges. The method is applied to evaluate to the occurrence of these compounds in a small watershed in Northern Colorado. The method verified the presence of trace levels of these antibiotics in urban and agricultural land use dominated sections of the river.
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ABSTRACT: The occurrence, bioaccumulation, and human dietary exposure via seafood consumption of 37 antibiotics in six typical marine aquaculture farms surrounding Hailing Island, South China were investigated in this study. Sulfamethoxazole, salinomycin and trimethoprim were widely detected in the water samples (0.4-36.9 ng/L), while oxytetracycline was the predominant antibiotic in the water samples of shrimp larvae pond. Enrofloxacin was widely detected in the feed samples (16.6-31.8 ng/g) and erythromycin-H2O was the most frequently detected antibiotic in the sediment samples (0.8-4.8 ng/g). Erythromycin-H2O was the dominant antibiotic in the adult Fenneropenaeus penicillatus with concentrations ranging from 2498 to 15,090 ng/g. In addition, trimethoprim was found to be bioaccumulative in young Lutjanus russelli with a median bioaccumulation factor of 6488 L/kg. Based on daily intake estimation, the erythromycin-H2O in adult F. penicillatus presented a potential risk to human safety.Marine Pollution Bulletin 11/2014; 90(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.10.053 · 2.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Veterinary ionophore antibiotics (IPAs) are polyether compounds used extensively in the livestock industry to promote animal growth and prevent coccidia infection. However, the environmental fate and impact of IPAs are not fully understood. In this study, the inhibition and biotransformation potential of the most commonly used IPAs, monensin (MON) and salinomycin (SAL), were investigated under well-defined aerobic, nitrate-reducing, fermentative/sulfate-reducing, and fermentative/methanogenic conditions. Batch assays were conducted with mixed cultures developed from poultry litter (PL), PL-fertilized soil, and municipal anaerobic sludge. Significant transformation of MON and SAL was observed in aerobic, low-buffer capacity culture series as a result of abiotic acid-catalyzed IPAs hydrolysis induced by nitrification. Biotransformation of IPAs was the main transformation process in aerobic, high-buffer capacity culture series. MON persisted under fermentative/sulfate-reducing conditions, whereas SAL was transformed by fermentative bacteria. Both MON and SAL were stable under nitrate-reducing and methanogenic conditions. At IPAs concentrations up to 1 mg/L, MON inhibited only methanogenesis, whereas SAL did not impact any of the biological processes investigated in this study. Multiple, new primary IPA biotransformation products were observed on LC/MS, and their molecular structures were tentatively identified by analyzing LC/MS/MS fragmentation patterns. Overall, MON and SAL exhibited different inhibition and biotransformation patterns at each redox condition tested, which could greatly influence their fate and impact upon their release into the environment as a result of agricultural activities.Environmental Science & Technology 10/2014; DOI:10.1021/es503005m · 5.48 Impact Factor
Dataset: Chen H- MPB