Rapid analysis of trace levels of antibiotic polyether ionophores in surface water by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography with ion trap tandem mass spectrometric detection.
ABSTRACT The occurrence of antibiotics in surface and ground water is an emerging area of interest due to the potential impacts of these compounds on the environment. This paper details a rapid, sensitive and reliable analytical method for the determination of monensin A and B, salinomycin and narasin A in surface water using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) with selected reaction monitoring (SRM). Several product ions as sodiated sodium salts for MS-MS detection have been identified and documented with their proposed fragmentation pathways. Statistical analysis for determination of the method detection limit (MDL), accuracy and precision of the method is described. The average recovery of ionophore antibiotics in pristine and wastewater-influenced water was 96.0+/-8.3% and 93.8+/-9.1%, respectively. No matrix effect was seen with the surface water. MDL was between 0.03 and 0.05 microg/L for these antibiotic compounds in the surface water. The accuracy and day-to-day variation of method fell within acceptable ranges. The method is applied to evaluate to the occurrence of these compounds in a small watershed in Northern Colorado. The method verified the presence of trace levels of these antibiotics in urban and agricultural land use dominated sections of the river.
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ABSTRACT: The occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment has become a matter of concern in the last decade due to potential risks posed to non-target organisms and the potential for unintended human exposure via food chain. This concern has been driven by a high detection frequency for drugs in environmental samples; these substances are produced in large quantities and are used in both veterinary and human medicine, leading to deposition and potential effects in the environment. However, few studies have focused on the presence of pharmaceuticals in rural areas associated with farming activities in comparison to urban areas. The aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of pharmaceutically active compounds in surface waters collected from urban and rural areas in northwestern Spain. A monitoring study was conducted with 312 river water samples analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Positive detection of pharmaceuticals was made for 51 % of the samples. Decoquinate, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxypyridazine and trimethoprim were the drugs most frequently detected, being present in more than 10 % of the samples. The sampling sites located downstream of the discharge points for wastewater treatment plants yielded the highest number of positive samples, 13 % of the positive samples were detected in these sites and 38 % of the samples collected near the collection point of a drinking water treatment plant were positive.Environmental Science and Pollution Research 09/2013; · 2.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper presents a comparison of triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) combined to ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography for the determination of glucocorticoids and polyether ionophores in sewage, in order to show the major benefits and drawbacks for each mass spectrometry analyser. Overall, HRMS measurements have enhanced performance in terms of confirmatory capabilities than MS/MS measurements. Moreover, similar limits of quantification, limits of detection, linear range and repeatability for glucocorticoids with both the MS/MS and HRMS methods were compared, but in the case of polyether ionophores, slightly better limits of detection and limits of quantification were obtained with the HRMS method because of the high sensitivity obtained when diagnostic ions are used for quantification instead of selected reaction monitoring transitions for these compounds. The two methods have been applied to the analysis of several influent and effluent sewage samples from sewage treatment plants located in the Tarragona region (Catalonia, Spain), showing an excellent correlation between the two methods. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Biological Mass Spectrometry 07/2014; 49(7). · 3.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Thirty-seven antibiotics were systematically investigated in typical marine aquaculture farms.•Enrofloxacin was widely detected in the feed samples (16.6–31.8 ng/g).•ETM-H2O in the adult shrimp samples may pose a potential risk to human safety.•TMP was bioaccumulative in fish muscles.•Antibiotics were weakly bioaccumulated in mollusks.Marine Pollution Bulletin. 11/2014;