Trends in Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control of Hypertension in the Middle-Aged Population of China, 1992-1998

Department of Epidemiology, Cardiovascular Disease Institute and Fu Wai Hospital, CAMS and PUMC.
Hypertension Research (Impact Factor: 2.66). 10/2004; 27(10):703-9. DOI: 10.1291/hypres.27.703
Source: PubMed


The objective of this study was to analyze the trends in prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in the middle-aged population of China. There were about 1,000 participants each from 13 different study populations that were examined in surveys conducted from 1992-1994 (n=18,746) and in 1998 (n=13,504) in conjunction with the China Multi-Center Study of Cardiovascular Epidemiology. Half the subjects were men and half were women; their ages ranged from 35 to 59 years. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure > or =140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure > or =90 mmHg, and/or current treatment with antihypertensive medications. Hypertension awareness and treatment were assessed with a standardized questionnaire. Hypertension control was defined as blood pressure measurements of less than 140/90 mmHg. The results showed that 24.0% of participants had hypertension in 1998, an increase of 2.3% from 1992-1994 (p <0.05). The prevalence of hypertension was 25.4% higher in urban than in rural areas, and was higher in men than in women. Among hypertensives, 42.6% were aware of their hypertension (a 5.3% increase compared with 1992-1994, p <0.05), 31.1% were treated (a 3.8% increase, p <0.05), and 6.0% were controlled (a 2.6% increase, p <0.05). The rates of awareness, treatment and control were higher in women than men, and higher in urban than rural areas. For treated hypertensives, the rate of control increased from 12.7% in 1992-1994 to 19.9% in 1998 (p <0.05). These findings indicate that hypertension prevalence is increasing in China. Control rates, while improving, still remain low. This implies that effective public health measures are needed to enhance the awareness, treatment, and control rates in the Chinese population.

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    • "The prevalence of hypertension in the People’s Republic of China has increased significantly in the last few years. In 1998, 24% of the population in the People’s Republic of China aged 35 to 59 years had hypertension, which was 2.3% higher than that observed from 1992 to 1994.5 In a recent analysis of the Indian cohorts, the prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension was 42.5% and 41.5%, respectively. "
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    ABSTRACT: Hypertension is common in Asian populations and is a major cause of cardiovascular diseases. The prevalence of hypertension is increasing in many Asian countries. The overall prevalence of hypertension in India and the People's Republic of China has been estimated to be 20.6% in men and 22.6% in women. However, the rates of detection, treatment, and control of hypertension remain low in Asia. This reflects a low level of literacy and education, as well as a low level of access to medical care. To overcome these obstacles, strategies targeted at education, promotion, and optimization of medical care, are crucial to achieve target blood pressure control. Angiotensin receptor blockers are one of the first-line treatments for essential hypertension because they confer better cardiovascular outcomes. Losartan has been widely evaluated for the management of hypertension. Although some studies suggested that the blood pressure-lowering effect of losartan is perhaps lower than for other angiotensin receptor blockers, losartan has been demonstrated to be beneficial in terms of renal protection in patients with diabetes, heart failure resulting from either systolic or diastolic dysfunction, and diuretic-induced hyperuricemia. However, most of these data were obtained from Caucasian populations. The efficacy and safety of losartan in Asian populations may be different because of genetic and ethnic variations. Therefore, the efficacy and safety of losartan in Asian patients with hypertension warrant further study.
    Clinical Interventions in Aging 03/2014; 9:443-450. DOI:10.2147/CIA.S39780 · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    • "In 2002, 153 million Chinese adults were hypertensive, with overall prevalence 24%, including higher prevalence in urban than in rural areas in men (23% vs. 18%) and women (18% vs. 16%) [2]. A report of the China Multi-Center Study of Cardiovascular Epidemiology showed that 24% of 1000 participants from 13 different study populations between 1992 and 1998 had hypertension, with prevalence 25.4% higher in urban than in rural areas; patients’ awareness rate (aware of having a history of high blood pressure) was 42.6%, treatment rate (currently using antihypertensive drugs) 31.1% and control rate (blood pressure controlled under 140/90 mmHg) 6.0% [3]. A cross-sectional study in April 2007 in rural Shandong Province, China, found hypertension prevalence to be high (43.8%), "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Hypertension prevalence is high in China, while patients’ levels of hypertension awareness, treatment and control are low. General practitioners’ knowledge and training relating to hypertension prevention may be an important related factor. We aimed to investigate general practitioners’ knowledge of hypertension prevention and potential training needs. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted among all general practitioners at five community health service centers selected by convenience sampling. A total of 160 questionnaires were distributed and 147 were returned (response rate 91.9%) The questionnaire included general information; 12 subjective questions on health promotion, education and training needs; and 19 objective questions in 5 domains (epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, referral and community management) measuring knowledge of hypertension prevention and treatment. Results The major difficulties in health education practice for general practitioners were poor patient compliance (77.6%) and lack of medical consultation time (49.0%). The average accuracy rate of hypertension prevention knowledge was 49.2%, ranging from 10.5% to 94.7%. The factors associated with accuracy rate were physician’s education level (medical university vs. professional school, β = 13.3, P = 0.003), and type of center (training base vs. community healthcare center, β = 12.3, P < 0.0001). Most physicians (87.8%) reported being willing to attend training courses regularly and the preferred frequency was once every 2 ~ 3 months (53.5%). The preferred course was medical treatment of hypertension (82.3%) and the most favored training approach was expert lectures (80.3%). Conclusions The knowledge level of hypertension prevention is low among general practitioners in urban settings. Physicians working in community clinics where they participate in a series of teaching, assessing and evaluating systems for hypertension prevention perform better than those in general healthcare centers who lack specific training. Continuing hypertension education is urgently needed to ensure that physicians in general practice are aware of and adhere to the national hypertension prevention guidelines.
    BMC Family Practice 01/2013; 14(1):16. DOI:10.1186/1471-2296-14-16 · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    • "No association between AH and marital status, these results are in accordance to what has been reported in other study [28]. In Martinique and China populations, the urban population exhibit a risk profile of hypertension [34,35], but not urban/rural differences were observed in our study, it is important to note that in our study in Monastir City, only 14% are from rural sites, the small number may influence statistics. The higher prevalence rates in hypertension among the illiterate and in individuals living in urban area are often being attributed to differences in life style, modernization, a shift from an agricultural to non agricultural economy, physical activity and occupation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Hypertension is a cardiovascular disorder rapidly emerging as a major public health problem in developing countries. However, the acknowledgement of the prevalence and the significant impact of hypertension in elderly are very important for health policy. The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the prevalence, awareness and treatment of hypertension among the elderly living in their home in Tunisia at Monastir City. We also examined the impact of socio-demographic characteristics and known risk factors for high blood pressure. A community based sample of 598 non-institutionalized elderly (age ≥ 65 years), was selected using probabilistic multistage cluster sampling. There was a predominance of female (66%) and mean age was 72.3 ± 7.4 years. The prevalence of hypertension was 52% (n = 311), awareness (81%, n = 252), treatment (78.4%, n = 244) and only 30.7% (n = 75) are correctly treated. The prevalence of hypertension was higher for the female population (55.5%) when compared to males (45%). No urban/rural differences were observed and no difference was observed by educational level. Multiple logistic regression analyses identified a higher body mass index, diabetes mellitus and disability as important correlates of the prevalence of hypertension. These findings provide important information on the prevalence, awareness and control of hypertension in Monastir City and confirm their association with other cardio-vascular risk factors. Effective public health measures and strategies are needed to improve prevention, diagnosis and access to treatment of this elderly population.
    BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 11/2011; 11(1):65. DOI:10.1186/1471-2261-11-65 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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