Trends in Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control of Hypertension in the Middle-Aged Population of China, 1992-1998
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to analyze the trends in prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in the middle-aged population of China. There were about 1,000 participants each from 13 different study populations that were examined in surveys conducted from 1992-1994 (n=18,746) and in 1998 (n=13,504) in conjunction with the China Multi-Center Study of Cardiovascular Epidemiology. Half the subjects were men and half were women; their ages ranged from 35 to 59 years. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure > or =140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure > or =90 mmHg, and/or current treatment with antihypertensive medications. Hypertension awareness and treatment were assessed with a standardized questionnaire. Hypertension control was defined as blood pressure measurements of less than 140/90 mmHg. The results showed that 24.0% of participants had hypertension in 1998, an increase of 2.3% from 1992-1994 (p <0.05). The prevalence of hypertension was 25.4% higher in urban than in rural areas, and was higher in men than in women. Among hypertensives, 42.6% were aware of their hypertension (a 5.3% increase compared with 1992-1994, p <0.05), 31.1% were treated (a 3.8% increase, p <0.05), and 6.0% were controlled (a 2.6% increase, p <0.05). The rates of awareness, treatment and control were higher in women than men, and higher in urban than rural areas. For treated hypertensives, the rate of control increased from 12.7% in 1992-1994 to 19.9% in 1998 (p <0.05). These findings indicate that hypertension prevalence is increasing in China. Control rates, while improving, still remain low. This implies that effective public health measures are needed to enhance the awareness, treatment, and control rates in the Chinese population.
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ABSTRACT: Little is known about the relation between deep breathing (DB) and blood pressure (BP). We studied the relationship between DB and BP in a large Japanese population. The subjects were recruited from randomly selected clinics and hospitals that were members of a medical association, and divided into two groups. In one group, BP was measured before and after taking 6 DB over a period of 30 s, and in the other group BP was measured before and after a 30-s rest in a sitting position without DB. Before these measurements, all patients rested 10 min or more in the waiting room and another 2 min or more in the doctor's office. Analyses were performed on data collected from 21,563 subjects. In both groups, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and pulse rate (PR) were significantly reduced after DB or a 30-s rest compared with the baseline measurements (p < 0.001). SBP reductions were greater in the DB group than in the 30-s rest group (normotensives: -6.4 +/- 8.3 vs. -3.0 +/- 7.4 mmHg, p < 0.001; untreated hypertensives: -9.6 +/- 10.2 vs. -5.9 +/- 9.1 mmHg, p < 0.001; treated hypertensives: -8.3 +/- 9.6 vs. -4.4 +/- 8.3 mmHg, p < 0.001). Greater BP reductions were found in patients with a higher baseline BP in both the DB and 30-s rest groups. In conclusion, the present study showed a baseline BP-dependent BP reduction by DB, suggesting that BP measurement should be done without DB in the office because DB lowers BP.Hypertension Research 07/2005; 28(6):499-504. DOI:10.1291/hypres.28.499 · 2.94 Impact Factor
- Prevention and Control 12/2005; 1(4):275-284. DOI:10.1016/j.precon.2006.04.001
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ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Hei Yi (meaning black worship and black dress) Zhuang is the most conservative group among the 43 ethnic subgroups of Zhuang in China due to its unique culture and customs. The prevalence of hypertension in this population has not been well defined. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to compare the effects of the demographic characteristics, health-related behaviors and lifestyle factors on the prevalence of hypertension in the middle-aged and elderly of the Guangxi Hei Yi Zhuang and Han populations. Methods:A total of 657 people of Hei Yi Zhuang aged 40 and over were randomly selected from 7 villages in Napo County of China. Information on the demographic characteristics, health-related behaviors and lifestyle factors was collected by questionnaire. Blood pressure, height, weight, waist circumference, serum lipid and apolipoprotein levels were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated as a measure of weight relative to height. The results were compared with those of 520 Han who live in the same district. Results: The prevalence of hypertension and isolated systolic hypertension in Hei Yi Zhuang was significantly higher than in Han (32.9 vs. 24.6%, p Conclusion: The current study reveals a significant difference in the prevalence of hypertension, blood pressure levels, and the relative factors between the Hei Yi Zhuang and Han ethnic groups, which may have been due to differences in geographical characteristics, lifestyle, sodium intake, education levels, and even genetic factors.Kidney and Blood Pressure Research 12/2006; 29(5):312-20. DOI:10.1159/000097019 · 1.82 Impact Factor