Identification of genes expressed differentially in subcutaneous and visceral fat of cattle, pig, and mouse

Department of Food Production Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shinshu University, Nagano-ken, Japan.
Physiological Genomics (Impact Factor: 2.37). 06/2005; 21(3):343-50. DOI: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00184.2004
Source: PubMed


The factors that control fat deposition in adipose tissues are poorly understood. It is known that visceral adipose tissues display a range of biochemical properties that distinguish them from adipose tissues of subcutaneous origin. However, we have little information on gene expression, either in relation to fat deposition or on interspecies variation in fat deposition. The first step in this study was to identify genes expressed in fat depot of cattle using the differential display RT-PCR method. Among the transcripts identified as having differential expression in the two adipose tissues were cell division cycle 42 homolog (CDC42), prefoldin-5, decorin, phosphate carrier, 12S ribosomal RNA gene, and kelch repeat and BTB domain containing 2 (Kbtbd2). In subsequent experiments, we determined the expression levels of these latter genes in the pig and in mice fed either a control or high-fat diet to compare the regulation of fat accumulation in other animal species. The levels of CDC42 and decorin mRNA were found to be higher in visceral adipose tissue than in subcutaneous adipose tissue in cattle, pig, and mice. However, the other genes studied did not show consistent expression patterns between the two tissues in cattle, pigs, and mice. Interestingly, all genes were upregulated in subcutaneous and/or visceral adipose tissues of mice fed the high-fat diet compared with the control diet. The data presented here extend our understanding of gene expression in fat depots and provide further proof that the mechanisms of fat accumulation differ significantly between animal species.

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Available from: Sanggun Roh, Aug 13, 2014
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    • "In a differential display approach, six genes were identified with expression differences in bovine VAT and SAT. All of these differences were reproducible in swine and mice, indicating that depot-specific factors exist over species 62. Li et al. (2012a, b) 63, 64 comparatively analyzed whole genome gene expression and methylation in SAT from three different locations, four VAT depots and intermuscular fat in swine, respectively. "
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    ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue is considered as a major endocrine organ that secretes numerous proteins called adipokines. The heterogeneous nature of adipose tissue in different parts of the body suggests respective heterogeneity of proteomes and secretomes. This review consolidates knowledge from recent studies targeting the diversity of different adipose depots affecting the pattern of secreted adipokines and discusses potential consequences for the cross-talk between adipose and skeletal muscle in humans, rodent models and farm animals. Special attention is paid to muscle-associated fat depots like inter- and intramuscular fat that become focus of attention in the context of the rather new notion of skeletal muscle as a major endocrine organ. Understanding the complexity of communication between adipocytes and skeletal muscle cells will allow developing strategies for improvement of human health and for sustainable production of high quality meat.
    07/2014; 2:31-44. DOI:10.7150/jgen.5260
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    • "Results of the current study suggest that differences in expression patterns across adipose depots were more prominent than relatively minor changes in diet compo - sition . miRNA have been reported to be tissue specific in other species , including pigs ( Hishikawa et al . , 2005 ) , mice ( Gao et al . , 2011 ; Lagos - Quintana et al . , 2002 ) , and humans ( Liang et al . , 2007 ) , indicating the complex role that these regulators play in differentiating metabolism among tissues . Expression of miR - 101 and miR - 16b were upregulated in PAT compared to SAT , yet miR - 2454 was downregulated 16 . 8 - and 9 . 0"
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    ABSTRACT: Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms which regulate ovine adipogenesis is very limited. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported as one of the regulatory mechanisms of adipogenesis. This study aimed to compare the expression of miRNAs related to ovine adipogenesis in different adipose depots and to investigate whether their expression is affected by dietary fatty acid composition. We also investigated the role of miRNA in adipogenic gene regulation. Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue samples were collected at slaughter from twelve Canadian Arcott lambs fed a barley-based finishing diet where an algae meal (DHA-G, Schizochytrium spp.) replaced flax oil and barley grain at 0 or 3% DM (n = 6). Total RNA from each tissue was subjected to qRT-PCR analysis to determine the expression of 15 selected miRNAs including 11 identified from bovine adipose tissues and 4 conserved between bovine and ovine species. miRNAs were differentially expressed according to diet in each tissue depot (miR-142-5p and -376d in visceral and miR-142-5p, -92a and -378 in subcutaneous adipose tissue; P ≤ 0.05) and in each tissue depot depending on diet (miR-101, -106, -136, -16b, -196a-1, -2368*, -2454, -296, -376d, -378 and -92a in both control and DHA-G diets, and miR-478 in control; P ≤ 0.05). Six miRNA were subjected to functional analysis and three genes of interest (ACSL1, PPARα and C/EPBα) were validated by qRT-PCR. Both diet and tissue depot affected expression levels of all three genes (P < 0.05). miR-101, -106 and -136 were negatively correlated with their respective predicted gene targets C/EBPα, PPARα and ACSL1 in subcutaneous adipose tissue of lambs fed DHA-G. Yet, miR-142-5p and miR-101 showed no correlation with ACSL1 or C/EBPα. The variability in expression patterns of miRNAs across adipose depots reflects the tissue specific nature of adipogenic regulation. Although the examined miRNAs appear to be conserved across ruminant species, our results indicate the presence of ovine specific regulatory mechanisms which can be influenced by diet.
    Journal of Animal Science 06/2014; 92(8). DOI:10.2527/jas.2014-7710 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    • "Adipose tissue is dynamic and known to play an important role in energy homeostasis. Different fat depots are known to display distinct metabolic characteristics, such as distinctive gene expression profiles, and thus likely have distinctive physiology [27,28]. Additionally, the function and regulation of adipose tissue may be affected by many other factors, such as diet [29], age [30] and stress [31]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue plays a critical role in energy homeostasis and metabolism. There is sparse understanding of the molecular regulation at the protein level of bovine adipose tissues, especially within different fat depots under different nutritional regimes. The objective of this study was to analyze the differences in protein expression between bovine subcutaneous and visceral fat depots in steers fed different diets and to identify the potential regulatory molecular mechanisms of protein expression. Subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues were collected from 16 British-continental steers (15.5 month old) fed a high-fat diet (7.1% fat, n=8) or a control diet (2.7% fat, n=8). Protein expression was profiled using label free quantification LC-MS/MS and expression of selected transcripts was evaluated using qRT-PCR. A total of 682 proteins were characterized and quantified with fat depot having more impact on protein expression, altering the level of 51.0% of the detected proteins, whereas diet affected only 5.3%. Functional analysis revealed that energy production and lipid metabolism were among the main functions associated with differentially expressed proteins between fat depots, with visceral fat being more metabolically active than subcutaneous fat as proteins associated with lipid and energy metabolism were upregulated. The expression of several proteins was significantly correlated to subcutaneous fat thickness and adipocyte size, indicating their potential as adiposity markers. A poor correlation (r=0.245) was observed between mRNA and protein levels for 9 genes, indicating that many proteins may be subjected to post-transcriptional regulation. A total of 8 miRNAs were predicted to regulate more than 20% of lipid metabolism proteins differentially expressed between fat depots, suggesting that miRNAs play a role in adipose tissue regulation. Our results show that proteomic changes support the distinct metabolic and physiological characteristics observed between subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue depots in cattle.
    PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e83211. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0083211 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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