Identification of genes expressed differentially in subcutaneous and visceral fat of cattle, pig, and mouse

Department of Food Production Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shinshu University, Nagano-ken, Japan.
Physiological Genomics (Impact Factor: 2.81). 06/2005; 21(3):343-50. DOI: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00184.2004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The factors that control fat deposition in adipose tissues are poorly understood. It is known that visceral adipose tissues display a range of biochemical properties that distinguish them from adipose tissues of subcutaneous origin. However, we have little information on gene expression, either in relation to fat deposition or on interspecies variation in fat deposition. The first step in this study was to identify genes expressed in fat depot of cattle using the differential display RT-PCR method. Among the transcripts identified as having differential expression in the two adipose tissues were cell division cycle 42 homolog (CDC42), prefoldin-5, decorin, phosphate carrier, 12S ribosomal RNA gene, and kelch repeat and BTB domain containing 2 (Kbtbd2). In subsequent experiments, we determined the expression levels of these latter genes in the pig and in mice fed either a control or high-fat diet to compare the regulation of fat accumulation in other animal species. The levels of CDC42 and decorin mRNA were found to be higher in visceral adipose tissue than in subcutaneous adipose tissue in cattle, pig, and mice. However, the other genes studied did not show consistent expression patterns between the two tissues in cattle, pigs, and mice. Interestingly, all genes were upregulated in subcutaneous and/or visceral adipose tissues of mice fed the high-fat diet compared with the control diet. The data presented here extend our understanding of gene expression in fat depots and provide further proof that the mechanisms of fat accumulation differ significantly between animal species.

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Available from: Sanggun Roh, Aug 13, 2014
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    • "Results of the current study suggest that differences in expression patterns across adipose depots were more prominent than relatively minor changes in diet compo - sition . miRNA have been reported to be tissue specific in other species , including pigs ( Hishikawa et al . , 2005 ) , mice ( Gao et al . , 2011 ; Lagos - Quintana et al . , 2002 ) , and humans ( Liang et al . , 2007 ) , indicating the complex role that these regulators play in differentiating metabolism among tissues . Expression of miR - 101 and miR - 16b were upregulated in PAT compared to SAT , yet miR - 2454 was downregulated 16 . 8 - and 9 . 0"
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    ABSTRACT: Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms which regulate ovine adipogenesis is very limited. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported as one of the regulatory mechanisms of adipogenesis. This study aimed to compare the expression of miRNAs related to ovine adipogenesis in different adipose depots and to investigate whether their expression is affected by dietary fatty acid composition. We also investigated the role of miRNA in adipogenic gene regulation. Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue samples were collected at slaughter from twelve Canadian Arcott lambs fed a barley-based finishing diet where an algae meal (DHA-G, Schizochytrium spp.) replaced flax oil and barley grain at 0 or 3% DM (n = 6). Total RNA from each tissue was subjected to qRT-PCR analysis to determine the expression of 15 selected miRNAs including 11 identified from bovine adipose tissues and 4 conserved between bovine and ovine species. miRNAs were differentially expressed according to diet in each tissue depot (miR-142-5p and -376d in visceral and miR-142-5p, -92a and -378 in subcutaneous adipose tissue; P ≤ 0.05) and in each tissue depot depending on diet (miR-101, -106, -136, -16b, -196a-1, -2368*, -2454, -296, -376d, -378 and -92a in both control and DHA-G diets, and miR-478 in control; P ≤ 0.05). Six miRNA were subjected to functional analysis and three genes of interest (ACSL1, PPARα and C/EPBα) were validated by qRT-PCR. Both diet and tissue depot affected expression levels of all three genes (P < 0.05). miR-101, -106 and -136 were negatively correlated with their respective predicted gene targets C/EBPα, PPARα and ACSL1 in subcutaneous adipose tissue of lambs fed DHA-G. Yet, miR-142-5p and miR-101 showed no correlation with ACSL1 or C/EBPα. The variability in expression patterns of miRNAs across adipose depots reflects the tissue specific nature of adipogenic regulation. Although the examined miRNAs appear to be conserved across ruminant species, our results indicate the presence of ovine specific regulatory mechanisms which can be influenced by diet.
    Journal of Animal Science 06/2014; 92(8). DOI:10.2527/jas.2014-7710 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    • "Body fat distribution is a heritable trait in mammals, suggesting that different developmental genetic programs might exist for different fat depots (Bouchard and Tremblay, 1997; Nelson et al., 2000; Baker et al., 2005). Indeed, each adipose depot has a unique gene expression signature during development (Linder et al., 2004; Hishikawa et al., 2005). These signatures are retained when progenitors from different depots are cultured in vitro, suggesting an intrinsic program rather than a nichedependent effect (Gesta et al., 2006; Macotela et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Lipid storage is an evolutionary conserved process that exists in all organisms from simple prokaryotes to humans. In Metazoa, long-term lipid accumulation is restricted to specialized cell types, while a dedicated tissue for lipid storage (adipose tissue) exists only in vertebrates. Excessive lipid accumulation is associated with serious health complications including insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Thus, significant advances have been made over the last decades to dissect out the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in adipose tissue formation and maintenance. Our current understanding of adipose tissue development comes from in vitro cell culture and mouse models, as well as recent approaches to study lipid storage in genetically tractable lower organisms. This Commentary gives a comparative insight into lipid storage in uni- and multi-cellular organisms with a particular emphasis on vertebrate adipose tissue. We also highlight the molecular mechanisms and nutritional signals that regulate the formation of mammalian adipose tissue.
    Journal of Cell Science 04/2013; 126(Pt 7):1541-52. DOI:10.1242/jcs.104992 · 5.33 Impact Factor
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    • "). It has also been reported that adipocytes in s.c. and VC depots show differences in basal metabolic properties, for example, in regulating volume and lipid composition as well as present differential gene expression profiles in humans (Montague et al., 1998) and cattle (Hishikawa et al., 2005). Within the CLA group, the adipocyte size significantly decreased only in s.c. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lactation and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on adipocyte sizes of subcutaneous (s.c.) and visceral (VC) fat depots in primiparous dairy cows during the first 105 d in milk (DIM). German Holstein heifers (n=25) were divided into a control (CON) and a CLA group. From 1 DIM until sample collection, CLA cows were fed 100g of CLA supplement/d (about 6% of c9,t11 and t10,c12 isomers each), whereas the CON cows received 100g of fatty acid mixture/d instead of CLA. The CON cows (n=5 each) were slaughtered at 1, 42, and 105 DIM, and the CLA cows (n=5 each) were slaughtered at 42 and 105 DIM. Adipose tissues from 3s.c. depots (tailhead, withers, and sternum) and from 3 VC depots (omental, mesenteric, and retroperitoneal) were sampled. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was done to measure adipocyte area (μm(2)). Retroperitoneal adipocyte sizes were mostly larger than adipocytes from the other sites, independent of lactation time and treatment. Significant changes related to duration of lactation were limited to retroperitoneal fat: adipocyte sizes were significantly smaller at 105 DIM than at 1 DIM in CON cows. Adipocyte sizes were decreased in s.c. depots from the tailhead at 105 DIM and from the sternum at 42 DIM in CLA versus CON cows, whereas for VC depots, adipocyte sizes were decreased in mesenteric fat at 42 and 105 DIM, and in omental and retroperitoneal fat, at 105 DIM in CLA versus CON cows. Within the CLA group, adipocyte sizes were smaller in the s.c. depot from the tailhead at 105 DIM than at 42 DIM. Adipocyte sizes and depot weights were significantly correlated in s.c. depots (r=0.795) in the CLA group and in retroperitoneal fat both in the CON (r=0.698) and the CLA (r=0.723) group. In conclusion, CLA-induced decreases in adipocyte size indicate lipolytic or antilipogenic effects of CLA, or both effects, on adipose tissue in primiparous dairy cows.
    Journal of Dairy Science 06/2011; 94(6):2871-82. DOI:10.3168/jds.2010-3868 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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