Identification of genes expressed differentially in subcutaneous and visceral fat of cattle, pig, and mouse.

Department of Food Production Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shinshu University, Nagano-ken, Japan.
Physiological Genomics (Impact Factor: 2.81). 06/2005; 21(3):343-50. DOI: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00184.2004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The factors that control fat deposition in adipose tissues are poorly understood. It is known that visceral adipose tissues display a range of biochemical properties that distinguish them from adipose tissues of subcutaneous origin. However, we have little information on gene expression, either in relation to fat deposition or on interspecies variation in fat deposition. The first step in this study was to identify genes expressed in fat depot of cattle using the differential display RT-PCR method. Among the transcripts identified as having differential expression in the two adipose tissues were cell division cycle 42 homolog (CDC42), prefoldin-5, decorin, phosphate carrier, 12S ribosomal RNA gene, and kelch repeat and BTB domain containing 2 (Kbtbd2). In subsequent experiments, we determined the expression levels of these latter genes in the pig and in mice fed either a control or high-fat diet to compare the regulation of fat accumulation in other animal species. The levels of CDC42 and decorin mRNA were found to be higher in visceral adipose tissue than in subcutaneous adipose tissue in cattle, pig, and mice. However, the other genes studied did not show consistent expression patterns between the two tissues in cattle, pigs, and mice. Interestingly, all genes were upregulated in subcutaneous and/or visceral adipose tissues of mice fed the high-fat diet compared with the control diet. The data presented here extend our understanding of gene expression in fat depots and provide further proof that the mechanisms of fat accumulation differ significantly between animal species.

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