Identification of genes expressed differentially in subcutaneous and visceral fat of cattle, pig, and mouse.

Department of Food Production Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shinshu University, Nagano-ken, Japan.
Physiological Genomics (Impact Factor: 2.81). 06/2005; 21(3):343-50. DOI: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00184.2004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The factors that control fat deposition in adipose tissues are poorly understood. It is known that visceral adipose tissues display a range of biochemical properties that distinguish them from adipose tissues of subcutaneous origin. However, we have little information on gene expression, either in relation to fat deposition or on interspecies variation in fat deposition. The first step in this study was to identify genes expressed in fat depot of cattle using the differential display RT-PCR method. Among the transcripts identified as having differential expression in the two adipose tissues were cell division cycle 42 homolog (CDC42), prefoldin-5, decorin, phosphate carrier, 12S ribosomal RNA gene, and kelch repeat and BTB domain containing 2 (Kbtbd2). In subsequent experiments, we determined the expression levels of these latter genes in the pig and in mice fed either a control or high-fat diet to compare the regulation of fat accumulation in other animal species. The levels of CDC42 and decorin mRNA were found to be higher in visceral adipose tissue than in subcutaneous adipose tissue in cattle, pig, and mice. However, the other genes studied did not show consistent expression patterns between the two tissues in cattle, pigs, and mice. Interestingly, all genes were upregulated in subcutaneous and/or visceral adipose tissues of mice fed the high-fat diet compared with the control diet. The data presented here extend our understanding of gene expression in fat depots and provide further proof that the mechanisms of fat accumulation differ significantly between animal species.

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Text: Knowledge of the health benefits associated with the consumption of n-3 PUFA has led to the selective inclusion of dietary lipids in ruminant diets in attempts to increase tissue incorporation. Increasing the n-3 fatty acid content of ruminant tissues requires the inclusion of dietary lipids that contain unsaturated fatty acids capable of withstanding ruminal biohydrogenation. Tasco® a commercial algal product manufactured from the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum (TA; 2% DM) was compared to canola (CO), flax (FO) and safflower oils (SO) for effects on performance, fatty acid profiles of skirt muscle, subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues and wool yield and quality characteristics of Canadian Arcott lambs. Fifty-six lambs were randomly assigned to four diets. Diets consisted of a pelleted, barley-based finishing diet with lipid sources included at 2% DM. Feed deliveries and orts were recorded daily with lambs weighed weekly and slaughtered once they reached ≥ 45 kg LW. Carcass characteristics and rumen pH were determined at slaughter. Dye-bands were used to determine wool growth, micron and staple length. Data were analyzed using mixed procedure in SAS. No effects were observed on intake, growth, feed efficiency or carcass characteristics. An increase (P<0.05) in staple strength of CO lambs was the only effect observed in wool. Supplementing Tasco® at 2% DM in the diet of Canadian Arcott lambs increased (P≤0.002) the SFA/PUFA ratio in skirt muscle and subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues in comparison to the supplementation of oils. Additionally, Tasco® supplementation did not improve concentrations of long chain n-3 PUFA or total n-3 concentrations in skirt muscle or adipose tissue when compared to lambs fed canola, flax or safflower oils. In contrast, supplementing FO increased total n-3 accumulation and reduced the n-6/n-3 ratio in all tissues (P<0.001), suggesting that the supplementation of Tasco® did not beneficially alter the FA profile of lamb tissues in comparison to other dietary lipids. Keywords: fatty acids, lambs, micro-algae
    2014 ADSA-ASAS-CSAS Joint Annual Meeting; 07/2014
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    ABSTRACT: The posttranscriptional gene regulation mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs) plays an important role in various species. Recently, a large number of miRNAs and their expression patterns have been identified. However, to date, limited miRNAs have been reported to modulate adipogenesis and lipid deposition in beef cattle. Total RNAs from Chinese Qinchuan bovine backfat at fetal and adult stages were used to construct small RNA libraries for Illumina next-generation sequencing. A total of 13,915,411 clean reads were obtained from a fetal library and 14,244,946 clean reads from an adult library. In total, 475 known and 36 novel miRNA candidates from backfat were identified. The nucleotide bias, base editing, and family of the known miRNAs were also analyzed. Based on stem-loop qPCR, 15 specific miRNAs were detected, and the results showed that bta-miRNAn25 and miRNAn26 were highly expressed in backfat tissue, suggesting these small RNAs play a role in the development and maintenance of bovine subcutaneous fat tissue. Putative targets for miRNAn25 and miRNAn26 were predicted, and the 61 most significant target transcripts were related to lipid and fatty acid metabolism. Of interest, the canonical pathway and gene networks analyses revealed that PPARα/RXRα activation and LXR/RXR activation were important components of the gene interaction hierarchy results. In the present study, we explored the backfat miRNAome differences between cattle of different developmental stages, expanding the expression repertoire of bovine miRNAs that could contribute to further studies on the fat development of cattle. Predication of target genes analysis of miRNA25 and miRNA26 also showed potential gene networks that affect lipid and fatty acid metabolism. These results may help in the design of new intervention strategies to improve beef quality.
    PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e90244. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0090244 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms which regulate ovine adipogenesis is very limited. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported as one of the regulatory mechanisms of adipogenesis. This study aimed to compare the expression of miRNAs related to ovine adipogenesis in different adipose depots and to investigate whether their expression is affected by dietary fatty acid composition. We also investigated the role of miRNA in adipogenic gene regulation. Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue samples were collected at slaughter from twelve Canadian Arcott lambs fed a barley-based finishing diet where an algae meal (DHA-G, Schizochytrium spp.) replaced flax oil and barley grain at 0 or 3% DM (n = 6). Total RNA from each tissue was subjected to qRT-PCR analysis to determine the expression of 15 selected miRNAs including 11 identified from bovine adipose tissues and 4 conserved between bovine and ovine species. miRNAs were differentially expressed according to diet in each tissue depot (miR-142-5p and -376d in visceral and miR-142-5p, -92a and -378 in subcutaneous adipose tissue; P ≤ 0.05) and in each tissue depot depending on diet (miR-101, -106, -136, -16b, -196a-1, -2368*, -2454, -296, -376d, -378 and -92a in both control and DHA-G diets, and miR-478 in control; P ≤ 0.05). Six miRNA were subjected to functional analysis and three genes of interest (ACSL1, PPARα and C/EPBα) were validated by qRT-PCR. Both diet and tissue depot affected expression levels of all three genes (P < 0.05). miR-101, -106 and -136 were negatively correlated with their respective predicted gene targets C/EBPα, PPARα and ACSL1 in subcutaneous adipose tissue of lambs fed DHA-G. Yet, miR-142-5p and miR-101 showed no correlation with ACSL1 or C/EBPα. The variability in expression patterns of miRNAs across adipose depots reflects the tissue specific nature of adipogenic regulation. Although the examined miRNAs appear to be conserved across ruminant species, our results indicate the presence of ovine specific regulatory mechanisms which can be influenced by diet.
    Journal of Animal Science 06/2014; 92(8). DOI:10.2527/jas.2014-7710 · 1.92 Impact Factor

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