Recombinant porcine zona pellucida glycoproteins expressed in Sf9 cells bind to bovine sperm but not to porcine sperm.
ABSTRACT The zona pellucida, which surrounds the mammalian oocyte, consists of the ZPA, ZPB, and ZPC glycoproteins and plays roles in species-selective sperm-egg interactions via its carbohydrate moieties. In the pig, this activity is conferred by tri- and tetraantennary complex type chains; in cattle, it is conferred by a chain of 5 mannose residues. In this study, porcine zona glycoproteins were expressed as secreted forms, using the baculovirus-Sf9 insect cell system. The sperm binding activities of the recombinant proteins were examined in three different assays. The assays clearly demonstrated that recombinant ZPB bound bovine sperm weakly but did not bind porcine sperm; when recombinant ZPC was also present, bovine sperm binding activity was greatly increased, but porcine sperm still was not bound. The major sugar chains of ZPB were pauci and high mannose type chains that were similar in structure to the major neutral N-linked chain of the bovine zona. In fact, the nonreducing terminal alpha-mannose residues were necessary for the sperm binding activity. These results show that the carbohydrate moieties of zona glycoproteins, but not the polypeptide moieties, play an essential role in species-selective recognition of porcine and bovine sperm. Moreover, Asn to Asp mutations at either of two of the N-glycosylation sites of ZPB, residue 203 or 220, significantly reduced the sperm binding activity of the ZPB/ZPC mixture, whereas a similar mutation at the third N-glycosylation site, Asn-333, had no effect on binding. These results suggest that the N-glycans located in the N-terminal half of the ZP domain of porcine ZPB are involved in sperm-zona binding.
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ABSTRACT: The human egg coat, zona pellucida (ZP), is composed of four glycoproteins designated as zona pellucida glycoprotein-1 (ZP1), -2 (ZP2), -3 (ZP3) and -4 (ZP4) respectively. The zona proteins possess the archetypal 'ZP domain', a signature domain comprised of approximately 260 amino acid (aa) residues. In the present manuscript, attempts have been made to delineate the functional significance of the 'ZP domain' module of human ZP1, corresponding to 273-551 aa fragment of human ZP1. Baculovirus-expressed, nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography purified 'ZP domain' of human ZP1 was employed to assess its capability to bind and subsequently induce acrosomal exocytosis in capacitated human spermatozoa using tetramethyl rhodamine isothiocyanate conjugated Pisum sativum Agglutinin in absence or presence of various pharmacological inhibitors. Binding characteristics of ZP1 'ZP domain' were assessed employing fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labelled recombinant protein. SDS-PAGE and immunoblot characterization of the purified recombinant protein (both from cell lysate as well as culture supernatant) revealed a doublet ranging from ~35-40 kDa. FITC- labelled 'ZP domain' of ZP1 binds primarily to the acrosomal cap of the capacitated human spermatozoa. A dose dependent increase in acrosomal exocytosis was observed when capacitated sperm were incubated with recombinant 'ZP domain' of human ZP1. The acrosome reaction mediated by recombinant protein was independent of Gi protein-coupled receptor pathway, required extra cellular calcium and involved both T- and L-type voltage operated calcium channels. Results described in the present study suggest that the 'ZP domain' module of human ZP1 has functional activity and may have a role during fertilization in humans.Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 01/2010; 8:110. · 2.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) is a major component of glycosaminoglycan, which is involved in sperm-oocyte interactions. We examined the effect of adding GlcNAc and other monosaccharides, D-mannose and D-fucose, to the in vitro fertilization (IVF) medium on bovine sperm-oocyte interactions. In medium in which sperm and a zona pellucida (ZP) were co-incubated with monosaccharides for 5 min, addition of GlcNAc (5 or 25 mM) significantly reduced the number of sperm that attached to the ZP. Pretreatment of gametes with GlcNAc (5 mM) prior to co-incubation also suppressed sperm-ZP attachment. Addition of GlcNAc (5 or 25 mM) to the medium in which sperm and a ZP were co-incubated for 5 h, however, significantly increased the number of sperm binding to and penetrating the ZP in a concentration-related manner. The other monosaccharides, D-fucose and D-mannose, did not have this effect. Supplementation of the sperm-oocyte co-incubation medium with 5 mM GlcNAc also enhanced the rate of polyspermic fertilization. When the ZPs were removed from the oocytes, GlcNAc did not affect the fertilization rate. Furthermore, incubation of sperm with 5 mM GlcNAc induced sperm membrane destabilization and an acrosome reaction, as evidenced by the hypo-osmotic swelling test and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled peanut agglutinin/propidium iodide (FITC-PNA/PI) staining. Finally, GlcNAc suppressed ZP hardening following fertilization, as determined by measuring the time required for pronase to dissolve the ZP. In conclusion, supplementation of IVF medium with GlcNAc has various effects on sperm-oocyte interactions including suppression of initial attachment, induction of sperm membrane destabilization and acrosome reaction, increase in the number of sperm secondarily bound to and penetrating the ZP, suppression of ZP hardening following sperm-oocyte co-incubation and increase in the rate of polyspermic fertilization.Journal of Reproduction and Development 10/2009; 55(6):676-84. · 1.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although the importance of carbohydrate recognition by sperm during egg zona pellucida binding has been widely reported, the sperm molecular species that recognize the carbohydrates are poorly characterized. Our previous cytochemical study indicated that two kinds of carbohydrate-binding proteins are expressed on porcine sperm heads-one recognizes N-acetyllactosamine (Galβ1-4GlcNAc-), and the other recognizes the Lewis X structure (Galβ1-4(Fucα1-3)GlcNAc-). For this report, we used proteomic techniques to characterize the sperm proteins that bind N-acetyllactosamine. Porcine sperm plasma membrane was solubilized with a detergent solution and subjected to sequential chromatography with dextran sulfate agarose, affinity, and hydroxyapatite, and the binding activities in the eluates were monitored by a solid-phase binding assay. The tryptic peptides of two proteins most likely associated with the binding activities were subjected to tandem mass spectrometry sequencing. A subsequent database search identified one of the two proteins as predicted disintegrin and metalloprotease domain-containing protein 20-like (XP_003128672). The other protein was identified as disintegrin and metalloprotease domain-containing protein 5 (AB613817) by database searches for homologous amino acid sequences, cDNA cloning, nucleotide sequencing and nucleotide database searches. Furthermore, two-dimensional blue native/SDS-PAGE demonstrated that they formed a variety of non-covalent complexes. Therefore, these ADAM complexes probably are responsible for the N-acetyllactosamine-binding activity. An affinity-purified fraction containing these ADAM complexes showed zona pellucida-binding activity, though the activity was relatively weak, and the presence of another zona pellucida-binding protein that probably works in concert with these ADAM complexes was suggested. Immunofluorescence testing suggested that ADAM20-like was localized on the anterior part of the sperm plasma membrane.Journal of Reproduction and Development 11/2011; 58(1):117-25. · 1.76 Impact Factor