A randomized trial of regular standardized telephone contact by a diabetes nurse educator in adolescents with poor diabetes control.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine the effect of regular standardized telephone contact by a diabetes nurse educator (DNE) on metabolic control, treatment compliance, and quality of life in adolescents with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes.
A single-blinded 6-month randomized controlled trial was used. Participants included 46 of 49 eligible adolescents (13-17 yr) with type 1 diabetes >1-yr duration and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) >8.5% for the previous 6 months. Subjects were randomly assigned to 6 months of standard diabetes management or standard care plus weekly telephone contact by a DNE. Telephone conversations included review of events in the adolescents' lives and diabetes education, but the primary focus was on blood glucose results and insulin-dose adjustments. HbA1c, compliance with glucose monitoring, quality of life [Diabetes Quality of Life Scale for Youth (DQOLY)], and family functioning [Family Environment Scale (FES)] were assessed at baseline, and at 3 and 6 months. Posthoc, HbA1c levels were assessed 6 months following study completion.
Six months of regular telephone contact by a DNE had no immediate effect on any of the outcome measures. However, posthoc 6 months, HbA1c levels decreased (1% change compared to baseline) in 6/21 of the study group and 0/18 of the control group, while HbA1c increased in 4/21 of study subjects compared to 8/18 of control subjects (p = 0.015).
In contrast to adult studies, regular telephone contact did not lead to immediate improvements in metabolic control in adolescents with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes. However, knowledge and skills gained during the intervention may have had a delayed beneficial effect in these high-risk adolescents.
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ABSTRACT: To better understand and overcome difficulties with recruitment of adolescents with type 2 diabetes into clinical trials at three United States institutions, we reviewed recruitment and retention strategies in clinical trials of youth with various chronic conditions. We explored whether similar strategies might be applicable to pediatric patients with type 2 diabetes. We compiled data on recruitment and retention of adolescents with type 2 diabetes at three centers (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland; Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; and Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC) from January 2009 to December 2011. We also conducted a thorough literature review on recruitment and retention in adolescents with chronic health conditions. The number of recruited patients was inadequate for timely completion of ongoing trials. Our review of recruitment strategies in adolescents included monetary and material incentives, technology-based advertising, word-of-mouth referral, and continuous patient-research team contact. Cellular or Internet technology appeared promising in improving participation among youths in studies of various chronic conditions and social behaviors. Adolescents with type 2 diabetes are particularly difficult to engage in clinical trials. Monetary incentives and use of technology do not represent "magic bullets," but may presently be the most effective tools. Future studies should be conducted to explore motivation in this population. We speculate that (1) recruitment into interventional trials that address the main concerns of the affected youth (e.g., weight loss, body image, and stress management) combined with less tangible outcomes (e.g., blood glucose control) may be more successful; and (2) study participation and retention may be improved by accommodating patients' and caregivers' schedules, by scheduling study visits before and after working hours, and in more convenient locations than in medical facilities.Journal of Adolescent Health 10/2013; · 2.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Many studies have tested clinical and behavioral approaches for improving glycemic control in people with diabetes. We reviewed studies to identify how blood glucose (BG) values have been used in patient-focused clinical research and interventions. We sought to describe the frequency that BG values have been the focus of patient education research and to characterize the different methods to integrate BG into an intervention, the approaches implemented to support patient education, and behavior change, and the nature of communication about BG values. Thirty-four eligible studies were identified that included patient education using BG values. Information regarding the study and intervention characteristics include: (1) characteristics of the study sample, (2) how BG values were obtained, (3) use of a graphical interface for BG values, (4) use of a BG log, (5) BG interpretation and regimen adjustments, (6) recommended actions to patient, (7) modality of intervention, and (8) intervention communication schedule. The review demonstrated that new BG technologies provide outstanding opportunities for greater access to BG data, and for patient support and intervention. However, it also indicated a need to improve and expand support for people with diabetes in their daily use of BG values to maintain and improve glycemic control. In order to make the most sustainable impact on behavior, generalizable skills such as problem solving need to be integrated into BG education.Current Diabetes Reports 09/2013; · 3.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Different treatment strategies have been used to manage adolescents with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes. We investigated whether a brief elective hospital admission improves haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) over 12months. We studied a retrospective cohort of adolescents with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes attending a tertiary care pediatric diabetes clinic in Montreal, Canada, between January 2005 and December 2010. Hospitalized adolescents (admitted group) were matched with controls (non-admitted group) for age and baseline HbA1c. HbA1c values at baseline, 6 and 12months were obtained from the clinic database. Thirty patients aged 11 to 17 years with a first elective admission for poor metabolic control were paired with 30 non-admitted patients. At baseline, HbA1c was 12.2±1.6% in admitted and 12.0±1.2% in non-admitted patients. There were no clinically important differences in potential confounders between groups. There was no improvement in the primary outcome as assessed by the change in HbA1c at 12months in the admitted group (-1.3±2.3%) compared with the non-admitted group (-2.1±1.7%) (P=0.078). No improvement in intermediary measures of glycaemic control was observed (HbA1c at 6months or change at 6months). After 12months, HbA1c values were higher in the admitted group (10.9±1.9%) versus the non-admitted group (9.9±1.4%) (P=0.016). Elective hospital admission for adolescents with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes does not seem to be an effective strategy to improve HbA1c over 12months.Diabetes & Metabolism 07/2013; · 2.39 Impact Factor