Vaginal swabs versus lavage for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis and bacterial vaginosis among HIV-positive women.
ABSTRACT Cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) is often used for research and may be easier and more accurate than vaginal swabs as a specimen collection method.
The goal of this study was to compare (CVL) with vaginal swabs for the detection of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV).
CVL and vaginal swabs were collected from 216 HIV-infected women. Clinical assessments were made using wet mount for TV and Amsel's criteria for BV through CVL and swab collection methods. Laboratory gold standards used were Nugent's criteria for BV and InPouch (Biomed Diagnostics, San Jose, CA) culture for TV collected by swab.
The prevalence by gold standards for BV was 49.3% and for TV was 25.2%. Sensitivities for direct microscopy versus culture for TV were 72.2 for CVL and 52.8 for vaginal swab (P <0.05). Sensitivities for Amsel's versus Nugent's criteria for BV were 36.2 for CVL and 34.0 for vaginal swab (P <0.80). Kappa scores of agreement between CVL and vaginal swabs for BV and TV were excellent for both.
CVL was comparable to vaginal swabs as a specimen collection method for these 2 lower genital tract infections and may be superior for the diagnosis of TV.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Trichomoniasis vaginalis is a risk factor for the acquisition and transmission of HIV. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of T vaginalis (using culture) among HIV-infected women receiving gynaecological care at an university HIV clinic in Alabama in addition to predictors of infection. METHODS: Electronic medical record review of women presenting to the clinic for gynaecological care during 2006-2012 was performed. Demographic and sexual history data was abstracted in addition to absolute CD4 cell count, HIV-1 viral load and sexually transmitted infection (STI) (including T vaginalis) testing results. Analysis was conducted using Stata V.12. RESULTS: T vaginalis was prevalent in 17.4% (83/478) of HIV-infected women; other STIs were less prevalent. Among these women, 384 presented for routine STI screening, of which 12% (46/384) were T vaginalis-infected. Younger age, African-American race, lifetime history of tobacco and drug abuse, lack of HIV therapy, HIV-1 viral load >400 copies/ml, and report of seeking gynaecological care for reasons other than routine STI screening (ie, having symptoms) were significant predictors of T vaginalis in univariate analysis. Age, African American race, and report of seeking gynaecological care for reasons other than routine STI screening remained associated with T vaginalis in multivariable analysis. CONCLUSIONS: T vaginalis remains highly prevalent among HIV-infected women, a proportion of which may be asymptomatic. If left undiagnosed and untreated, these women may be more likely to transmit HIV. Increased emphasis on screening for high risk sexual behaviours, testing for T vaginalis, and risk reduction counselling is necessary for all HIV-infected women.Sexually transmitted infections 02/2013; 89(6). DOI:10.1136/sextrans-2012-050889 · 3.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine if the metronidazole (MTZ) 2-gm single dose (recommended) is as effective as the 7-day 500 mg twice a day dose (alternative) for treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) among HIV+ women. Phase IV randomized clinical trial; HIV+ women with culture confirmed TV were randomized to treatment arm: MTZ 2-gm single dose or MTZ 500 mg twice a day 7-day dose. All women were given 2-gm MTZ doses to deliver to their sex partners. Women were recultured for TV at a test-of-cure (TOC) visit occurring 6-12 days after treatment completion. TV-negative women at TOC were again recultured at a 3-month visit. Repeat TV infection rates were compared between arms. Two hundred seventy HIV+/TV+ women were enrolled (mean age = 40 years, ±9.4; 92.2% African American). Treatment arms were similar with respect to age, race, CD4 count, viral load, antiretroviral therapy status, site, and loss-to-follow up. Women in the 7-day arm had lower repeat TV infection rates at TOC [8.5% (11 of 130) versus 16.8% (21 of 125) (relative risk: 0.50, 95% confidence interval = 0.25, 1.00; P < 0.05)] and at 3 months [11.0% (8 of 73) versus 24.1% (19 of 79) (relative risk: 0.46, 95% confidence interval = 0.21, 0.98; P = 0.03)] compared with the single-dose arm. The 7-day MTZ dose was more effective than the single dose for the treatment of TV among HIV+ women.JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 12/2010; 55(5):565-71. DOI:10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181eda955 · 4.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective. Among women who are human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+), both prevalent and persistent infections with Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) are common. TV has been shown to increase vaginal shedding of HIV, which may influence HIV sexual and perinatal transmission, making prevention important. In 1 cohort of HIV+ women in Kenya, antiretroviral therapy (ART) use, mostly nevirapine based, was associated with lower cure rates of TV for single-dose therapy. Our goal was to repeat this study in a US-based cohort of HIV+/TV+ women and compare outcomes to those with multidose therapy. Methods. A secondary data analysis was performed on a multicentered cohort of HIV+/TV+ women who were randomized to single-dose (2 grams) or 7-day (500 mg twice daily) multidose metronidazole (MTZ) treatment. Test of cure visit, via culture, occurred 6-12 days after treatment completion. Information was collected on sex partner treatment and sexual exposures. Persistent TV infection rates were compared for women on ART at baseline vs not on ART. Results. Of the 226 women included, those on ART had more treatment failures than women not on ART (24/146 [16.4%] vs 5/80 [6.3%]; P = .03). When stratified by treatment arm, more treatment failures were seen in the single-dose arm (17/73 [23.3%] vs 3/39 [7.7%]; P = .05) than in the multidose arm (7/73 [9.6%] vs 2/41 [4.8%]; P = .39). Conclusions. ART usage was associated with a higher TV persistent infection rate among those receiving the single-dose treatment, but not the multidose, providing more evidence that multidose should be the preferred treatment for HIV+ women.Clinical Infectious Diseases 06/2014; 59(6). DOI:10.1093/cid/ciu401 · 9.42 Impact Factor