Selective blockade of the capsaicin receptor TRPV1 attenuates bone cancer pain.
ABSTRACT Cancer colonization of bone leads to the activation of osteoclasts, thereby producing local tissue acidosis and bone resorption. This process may contribute to the generation of both ongoing and movement-evoked pain, resulting from the activation of sensory neurons that detect noxious stimuli (nociceptors). The capsaicin receptor TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1) is a cation channel expressed by nociceptors that detects multiple pain-producing stimuli, including noxious heat and extracellular protons, raising the possibility that it is an important mediator of bone cancer pain via its capacity to detect osteoclast- and tumor-mediated tissue acidosis. Here, we show that TRPV1 is present on sensory neuron fibers that innervate the mouse femur and that, in an in vivo model of bone cancer pain, acute or chronic administration of a TRPV1 antagonist or disruption of the TRPV1 gene results in a significant attenuation of both ongoing and movement-evoked nocifensive behaviors. Administration of the antagonist had similar efficacy in reducing early, moderate, and severe pain-related responses, suggesting that TRPV1 may be a novel target for pharmacological treatment of chronic pain states associated with bone cancer metastasis.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel activated by multiple stimuli, and is implicated in a variety of pain disorders. Dynamic sensitization of TRPV1 activity by A-kinase anchoring protein 150 demonstrates a critical role for scaffolding proteins in nociception, yet few studies have investigated scaffolding proteins capable of mediating receptor desensitization. In this report, we identify β-arrestin-2 as a scaffolding protein that regulates TRPV1 receptor activity. We report β-arrestin-2 association with TRPV1 in multiple cell models. Moreover, siRNA- mediated knockdown of β-arrestin-2 in primary cultures resulted in a significant increase in both initial and repeated responses to capsaicin. Electrophysiological analysis further revealed significant deficits in TRPV1 desensitization in primary cultures from β-arrestin-2 knock-out mice compared to wild-type. In addition, we found that β-arrestin-2 scaffolding of phosphodiesterase PDE4D5 to the plasma membrane was required for TRPV1 desensitization. Importantly, inhibition of PDE4D5 activity reversed β-arrestin-2 desensitization of TRPV1. Together, these results identify a new endogenous scaffolding mechanism that regulates TRPV1 ligand binding and activation.Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2012; · 4.77 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The discovery of heat-sensitive Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid (TRPV) ion channels provided a potential molecular explanation for the perception of innocuous and noxious heat stimuli. TRPV1 has a significant role in acute heat nociception and inflammatory heat hyperalgesia. Yet, substantial innocuous and noxious heat sensitivity remains in TRPV1 knockout animals. Here we investigated the role of two related channels, TRPV3 and TRPV4, in these capacities. We studied TRPV3 knockout animals on both C57BL6 and 129S6 backgrounds, as well as animals deficient in both TRPV3 and TRPV4 on a C57BL6 background. Additionally, we assessed the contributions of TRPV3 and TRPV4 to acute heat nociception and inflammatory heat hyperalgesia during inhibition of TRPV1. TRPV3 knockout mice on the C57BL6 background exhibited no obvious alterations in thermal preference behavior. On the 129S6 background, absence of TRPV3 resulted in a more restrictive range of occupancy centered around cooler floor temperatures. TRPV3 knockout mice showed no deficits in acute heat nociception on either background. Mice deficient in both TRPV3 and TRPV4 on a C57BL6 background showed thermal preference behavior similar to wild-type controls on the thermal gradient, and little or no change in acute heat nociception or inflammatory heat hyperalgesia. Masking of TRPV1 by the TRPV1 antagonist JNJ-17203212 did not reveal differences between C57BL6 animals deficient in TRPV3 and TRPV4, compared to their wild-type counterparts. Our results support the notion that TRPV3 and TRPV4 likely make limited and strain-dependent contributions to innocuous warm temperature perception or noxious heat sensation, even when TRPV1 is masked. These findings imply the existence of other significant mechanisms for heat perception.Molecular Pain 01/2011; 7:37. · 3.53 Impact Factor
Article: Inhibition of p38-MAPK signaling pathway attenuates breast cancer induced bone pain and disease progression in a murine model of cancer-induced bone pain.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mechanisms driving cancer-induced bone pain are poorly understood. A central factor implicated to be a key player in the process of tumorigenesis, osteoclastogenesis and nociception is p38 MAPK. We determined the role of p38 MAPK in a mouse model of breast cancer induced bone pain in which mixed osteolytic and osteoblastic remodeling occurs. In cancer-treated mice, acute as well as chronic inhibition of p38 MAPK with SB203580 blocked flinching and guarding behaviors in a dose-dependent manner whereas no effect on thresholds to tactile stimuli was observed. Radiographic analyses of bones demonstrated that chronic inhibition of p38 MAPK reduced bone loss and incidence of spontaneous fracture in cancer-treated mice. Histological analysis of bones collected from mice treated with the p38 MAPK inhibitor showed complete absence of osteoblastic growth in the intramedullary space as well as significantly reduced tumor burden. Blockade of non-evoked pain behaviors but not hypersensitivity suggests differences in the underlying mechanisms of specific components of the pain syndrome and a possibility to individualize aspects of pain management. While it is not known whether the role of p38 MAPK signaling can be expanded to other cancers, the data suggest a need for understanding molecular mechanisms and cellular events that initiate and maintain cancer-induced bone pain for effective management for both ongoing pain as well as breakthrough pain.Molecular Pain 01/2011; 7:81. · 3.53 Impact Factor