This report presents national estimates of the prevalence of diagnosed Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and/or Learning Disability (LD) in U.S. children. Differences in the prevalence of these conditions are examined for children with selected sociodemographic characteristics. The occurrence of other health conditions and use of educational and health care services are contrasted for children with only ADD, those with only LD, those with both diagnoses, and those with neither diagnosis.
Estimates in this report are based on data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), a national household survey of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States. The analysis focuses on 8,647 children 6-11 years of age in the 1997 and 1998 NHIS.
In 1997-98 over 2.6 million children 6-11 years of age were reported to have ever had a diagnosis of ADD or LD. A diagnosis of only ADD was reported for 3 percent of children, a diagnosis of only LD for 4 percent, and a diagnosis of both conditions for 4 percent. The prevalence of ADD with or without LD was greater for boys than for girls. Having health insurance was associated with a diagnosis of only ADD. Living in a low-income or mother-only family occurred more often among children with a diagnosis of LD. Children with LD were nearly five times more likely to be in special education than children with a diagnosis of only ADD. Children with ADD, in contrast to children without this diagnosis, more often had contact with a mental health professional, used prescription medication regularly, and had frequent health care visits.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article critically reviews the broad scope of literature related to diagnostic criteria, the etiological basis as well as the pharmacological and behavioral treatments of the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children. The electronic databases Medline, LILACS, PsycINFO and PubMed of the last three decades were consulted. The results of this review indicated a predominance of diagnostic criteria based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, and the necessity of an increased interaction between biological and behavioral variables in understanding the etiological basis and treatment of this disorder. Suggestions to maximize the effectiveness of this interaction are presented and discussed.
Psicologia Teoria e Pesquisa 12/2010; 26(4):717-724. DOI:10.1590/S0102-37722010000400015
"Studies investigating the effect of environmental exposures on neurobehavioral outcomes have been complicated by evidence from both animal and human studies that toxicants may have differing effects in male and female subjects (Burns et al. 1999; Ernst 2001; McCartney 1999; O'Callaghan et al. 1992; Ribary and Lichtensteiger 1989; Ris et al. 2004; Weissman et al. 1999). The prevalence of ADHD is three times greater among males than among females (Costello et al. 2003; Lesesne et al. 2003; Olfson et al. 2003; Pastor and Reuben 2002). Some studies have documented varying behavioral effects of prenatal ETS exposure in males and females (Fergusson et al. 1998; Weissman et al. 1999), whereas other studies have not (Mick et al. 2002a; Milberger et al. 1996, 1998; Orlebeke et al. 1999). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of exposures to tobacco smoke and environmental lead with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. Prenatal and postnatal tobacco exposure was based on parent report; lead exposure was measured using blood lead concentration. ADHD was defined as having current stimulant medication use and parent report of ADHD diagnosed by a doctor or health professional.
Of 4,704 children 4-15 years of age, 4.2% were reported to have ADHD and stimulant medication use, equivalent to 1.8 million children in the United States. In multivariable analysis, prenatal tobacco exposure [odds ratio (OR) = 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2-5.2] and higher blood lead concentration (first vs. fifth quintile, OR = 4.1; 95% CI, 1.2-14.0) were significantly associated with ADHD. Postnatal tobacco smoke exposure was not associated with ADHD (OR = 0.6; 95% CI, 0.3-1.3; p = 0.22). If causally linked, these data suggest that prenatal tobacco exposure accounts for 270,000 excess cases of ADHD, and lead exposure accounts for 290,000 excess cases of ADHD in U.S. children.
We conclude that exposure to prenatal tobacco and environmental lead are risk factors for ADHD in U.S. children.
Environmental Health Perspectives 01/2007; 114(12):1904-9. DOI:10.1289/ehp.9478 · 7.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An enduring controversy over the nature of ADHD complicates parents’ decisions regarding children likely to be diagnosed with the condition. Using a fallibilist perspective, this review examines how researchers construe ADHD and acknowledge the controversy. From a systematic literature search of empirical reports using parents of ADHD-diagnosed children as primary informants, 36 reports published between 1996 and 2008 (corresponding to 30 studies) were selected. Data on the studies’ characteristics and methodologies, definitions of ADHD, and extent of the acknowledgment of the ADHD controversy were extracted, as were data on a wide range of parental concerns and experiences. Researchers in 27 of 30 studies define ADHD as a valid disorder, in 22 studies they tend to recommend parental adherence to the biomedical view, and in eight studies they specifically acknowledge an ADHD controversy. This body of studies reports varied and poignant observations on parents’ situations and dilemmas. Still, it largely reflects a Western-ethnocentric view and appears greatly preoccupied with parents who do not medicate their children, ignoring parents’ rationales for using medications.
International Journal of Early Childhood 04/2012; 45(1). DOI:10.1007/s13158-012-0064-z
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