Attention Deficit Disorder and Learning Disability: United States, 1997-98.
ABSTRACT This report presents national estimates of the prevalence of diagnosed Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and/or Learning Disability (LD) in U.S. children. Differences in the prevalence of these conditions are examined for children with selected sociodemographic characteristics. The occurrence of other health conditions and use of educational and health care services are contrasted for children with only ADD, those with only LD, those with both diagnoses, and those with neither diagnosis.
Estimates in this report are based on data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), a national household survey of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States. The analysis focuses on 8,647 children 6-11 years of age in the 1997 and 1998 NHIS.
In 1997-98 over 2.6 million children 6-11 years of age were reported to have ever had a diagnosis of ADD or LD. A diagnosis of only ADD was reported for 3 percent of children, a diagnosis of only LD for 4 percent, and a diagnosis of both conditions for 4 percent. The prevalence of ADD with or without LD was greater for boys than for girls. Having health insurance was associated with a diagnosis of only ADD. Living in a low-income or mother-only family occurred more often among children with a diagnosis of LD. Children with LD were nearly five times more likely to be in special education than children with a diagnosis of only ADD. Children with ADD, in contrast to children without this diagnosis, more often had contact with a mental health professional, used prescription medication regularly, and had frequent health care visits.
SourceAvailable from: Lesliam Quirós-Alcalá[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background: Use of pyrethroid insecticides has increased dramatically over the past decade; however, data on their potential health effects, particularly on children, are limited. Objective: We examined the cross-sectional association between postnatal pyrethroid exposure and parental report of learning disability (LD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children 6–15 years of age. Methods: Using logistic regression, we estimated associations of urinary metabolites of pyrethroid insecticides with parent-reported LD, ADHD, and both LD and ADHD in 1,659–1,680 children participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2002). Results: The prevalence rates of parent-reported LD, ADHD, and both LD and ADHD were 12.7%, 10.0%, and 5.4%, respectively. Metabolite detection frequencies for 3-PBA [3-phenoxybenzoic acid], cis-DCCA [cis-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid], and trans-DCCA [trans-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid] were 77.1%, 35.6%, and 33.9%, respectively. The geometric mean 3-PBA concentration was 0.32 μg/L (median = 0.31 μg/L; interquartile rage = 0.10–0.89 μg/L). cis- and trans-DCCA 75th-percentile concentrations were 0.21 μg/L and 0.68 μg/L, respectively. Log10-transformed 3-PBA concentrations were associated with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of 1.18 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.51) for parent-reported LD, 1.16 (95% CI: 0.85, 1.58) for ADHD, and 1.45 (95% CI: 0.92, 2.27) for both LD and ADHD. Adjusted ORs remained nonsignificant and decreased after controlling for creatinine and other environmental chemicals previously linked to altered neurodevelopment. Similarly, no significant associations were observed for cis- and trans-DCCA. Conclusions: Postnatal pyrethroid exposure was not associated with parental report of LD and/or ADHD. Given the widespread and increasing use of pyrethroids, future research should evaluate exposures at current levels, particularly during critical windows of brain development. Citation: Quirós-Alcalá L, Mehta S, Eskenazi B. 2014. Pyrethroid pesticide exposure and parental report of learning disability and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in U.S. Children: NHANES 1999–2002. Environ Health Perspect 122:1336–1342; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1308031Environmental Health Perspectives 09/2014; 122(12). DOI:10.1289/ehp.1308031 · 7.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Youth exhibiting symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are frequently referred to school psychologists because of academic, social, and behavioral difficulties that they face. To address these difficulties, evidence-based assessment methods have been outlined for multiple purposes of assessment. The goals of this study were to delineate school psychologists’ (a) primary purpose of their assessment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (i.e., screening, diagnosis, placement, intervention planning, progress monitoring), (b) use of recommended assessment tools/strategies and the perceived importance of each recommended tool/strategy for decision making, and (c) their perceived adequacy of training regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorder assessment. Surveys from 217 school psychologists identified intervention planning as the primary purpose of assessment. Participants reported following recommended guidelines most frequently for diagnosis, impairment, and intervention development; they were least likely to follow guidelines for progress monitoring, evaluating outcomes, and assessing integrity. Participants reported being best trained for screening and placement, and least well trained in evaluating outcomes and developing interventions. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.Journal of Applied School Psychology 10/2013; 29(4):305-327. DOI:10.1080/15377903.2013.836775
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ABSTRACT: This article critically reviews the broad scope of literature related to diagnostic criteria, the etiological basis as well as the pharmacological and behavioral treatments of the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children. The electronic databases Medline, LILACS, PsycINFO and PubMed of the last three decades were consulted. The results of this review indicated a predominance of diagnostic criteria based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, and the necessity of an increased interaction between biological and behavioral variables in understanding the etiological basis and treatment of this disorder. Suggestions to maximize the effectiveness of this interaction are presented and discussed.Psicologia Teoria e Pesquisa 12/2010; 26(4):717-724. DOI:10.1590/S0102-37722010000400015