Modeling the acceleration sensitive neurons in the pigeon optokinetic system.

State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Science, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Beijing, 100101, P.R. China.
Biological Cybernetics (Impact Factor: 2.07). 05/2005; 92(4):252-60. DOI:10.1007/s00422-005-0549-z
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Recent physiological findings revealed that about one-third of motion-sensitive neurons in the pigeon's pretectal nucleus encoded the acceleration of visual motion. Here we propose a microcircuit hypothesis, in which the slow adaptive depressions play a significant role in response generating, to account for the origin of the three important properties of the acceleration-sensitive neurons: the plateau-shaped speed-tuning curves, the opposite-signed after-responses (OSARs) and the acceleration sensitivities. The flat plateau within the speed-tuning curves and the OSARs to motion offset observed in experiments are reproduced successfully in simulations, and the simulative responses of the acceleration-sensitive neurons to step changes, ramp changes in stimulus speed and sine wave modulations of stimulus speed are qualitatively consistent with physiological observations. Thus, a biologically plausible substrate for the neurons' classification and the origin of the three properties are provided.

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    ABSTRACT: Kinetic occlusion produces discontinuities in the optic flow field, whose perception requires the detection of an unexpected onset or offset of otherwise predictably moving or stationary contrast patches. Many cells in primate visual cortex are directionally selective for moving contrasts, and recent reports suggest that this selectivity arises through the inhibition of contrast signals moving in the cells' null direction, as in the rabbit retina. This nulling inhibition circuit (Barlow-Levick) is here extended to also detect motion onsets and offsets. The selectivity of extended circuit units, measured as a peak evidence accumulation response to motion onset/offset compared to the peak response to constant motion, is analyzed as a function of stimulus speed. Model onset cells are quiet during constant motion, but model offset cells activate during constant motion at slow speeds. Consequently, model offset cell speed tuning is biased towards higher speeds than onset cell tuning, similarly to the speed tuning of cells in the middle temporal area when exposed to speed ramps. Given a population of neurons with different preferred speeds, this asymmetry addresses a behavioral paradox-why human subjects in a simple reaction time task respond more slowly to motion offsets than onsets for low speeds, even though monkey neuron firing rates react more quickly to the offset of a preferred stimulus than to its onset.
    Journal of Computational Neuroscience 04/2012; · 2.44 Impact Factor

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