The comparative hemodynamic effects of methohexital and remifentanil in electroconvulsive therapy.
ABSTRACT Remifentanil is a short acting opioid frequently used to supplement general anesthesia for brief procedures. Narcotic agents are known for their ability to blunt autonomic responses to stimuli such as laryngoscopy and intubation and do not alter seizure threshold. We hypothesized that the combination of remifentanil and methohexital for induction would produce favorable suppression of sympathetic response during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). With Institutional Review Board approval and informed consent, patients were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, crossover study of methohexital alone versus remifentanil with an adjuvant of low-dose methohexital. One hundred ten ECT treatments were evaluated and subjects were treated in an alternating fashion with one of two induction protocols: Methohexital alone in an 80-100 mg IV bolus or remifentanil 500 mcg IV bolus combined with methohexital 40 mg IV. Bilateral ECT was performed in standard fashion and systolic blood pressure and heart rate were recorded throughout the procedure. No significant differences were found in baseline hemodynamic values between the two groups. Heart rate was significantly lower in the remifentanil group versus methohexital group at one minute post-induction and just prior to ECT stimulus. Pre-ECT systolic blood pressure was not significantly different between the two groups. Heart rate remained lower in the remifentanil group at all measured timepoints during the treatment and continuously for five minutes after the seizure. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower at one minute following the end of seizure and five minutes after end of seizure. Remifentanil's short duration of action, favorable side effect profile, potential proconvulsant activity and ability to suppress hemodynamic response make it a potential novel drug for ECT induction.
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ABSTRACT: Among the drugs used for the induction of anesthesia for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), thiopental induces a greater degree of cardiovascular alteration than other agents. Remifentanil has been found to reduce blood pressure and heart rate when administered as an adjuvant during general anesthesia, with unknown effects on the duration of motor or electroencephalographic seizure activity during ECT. The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing thiopental anesthesia with remifentanil on convulsion duration and cardiovascular response during ECT. Twenty-four American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II patients receiving 6 sessions of ECT were randomly allocated to 2 groups. All patients were premedicated with atropine (0.4 mg, intravenously), then anesthesia was induced by thiopental (1.0 mg/kg), succinylcholine (0.5 mg/kg), and remifentanil (1.0 microg/kg) in the case group or normal saline (3 mL) in the control group in a crossover format. Stimulus amplitude for applying ECT was kept constant during the sessions of treatment in the course of study for each patient. Hemodynamic parameters, convulsion duration, and recovery parameters were recorded. Statistical analysis was done using paired t tests. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding convulsion duration, recovery times to eye opening, obeying specific commands, and walking without help. Remifentanil significantly attenuated the increase in heart rate and arterial blood pressure (P < 0.05). Remifentanil (1 microg/kg) administered before thiopental (1 mg/kg) has no adverse effect on the duration of ECT-induced convulsion and recovery time, but it can attenuate the increase in heart rate and arterial blood pressure.The journal of ECT 09/2009; 25(3):170-3. · 1.19 Impact Factor
- Brain Stimulation 10/2009; 2(4):238-40. · 4.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although there is no specific age cutoff for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and no absolute contraindication to its use, very old age and the presence of cardiac conditions such as aortic stenosis are factors that may negatively affect the physician's decision to administer ECT in individual cases. We report our follow-up of a 100-year-old woman with severe aortic stenosis who has received ECT safely for 5 years now. No cardiac complications have emerged during this period. Her prior unipolar depressive episode with catatonic features remains in remission with a single prophylactic ECT session every 3 months. We have observed from our experience with this unique case that periodic multidisciplinary re-evaluation of the evolving risk-benefit profile of ECT is essential along with the inclusion of family members in this dialogue. Our patient's course illustrates that neither advanced age nor severe aortic stenosis is an absolute contraindication to ECT even over an extended period of time. Each case needs to be evaluated on its merits. To our knowledge, this case represents the oldest patient in the literature where ECT has been administered safely for such an extended period in the setting of severe aortic stenosis.The journal of ECT 09/2011; 27(3):227-30. · 1.19 Impact Factor