Elevated interleukin-18 levels are associated with the metabolic syndrome independent of obesity and insulin resistance.
ABSTRACT Activated innate immunity is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine with important regulatory functions in the innate immune response. We sought to determine whether an elevated IL-18 concentration was a risk predictor for metabolic syndrome in a community population independent of obesity and hyperinsulinemia.
A representative general population, aged 27 to 77 years, without clinical diabetes was studied for clinical and biochemical risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Serum IL-18 concentration measured in 955 subjects correlated with metabolic syndrome traits including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (inversely), and fasting glucose and insulin levels (all P<0.001). Mean IL-18 levels rose progressively with the increasing number of metabolic risk factors (ANOVA P<0.001). After adjusting for age, gender, BMI, and insulin levels, increasing IL-18 tertiles were associated with an odds ratio for metabolic syndrome of 1.0, 1.42, and 2.28, respectively (P trend=0.007). The graded risk relation was even stronger in nonobese subjects and not attenuated when adjusted for C-reactive protein and IL-6 levels.
Our findings support the hypothesis that activation of IL-18 is involved in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of pioglitazone on blood glucose control and inflammatory biomarkers in diabetic patients receiving insulin after kidney transplantation. Materials and Methods. In a randomized placebo-controlled trial, 62 diabetic kidney transplant patients were followed for 4 months after randomly assigned to placebo and pioglitazone (30 mg/d) groups. All of the patients continued their insulin therapy irrespective of the group that they were assigned to, in order to evaluate the effects of addition of pioglitazone on blood glucose and inflammation biomarkers including serum C-reactive protein, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and interleukin-18 levels, as well as erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Results. At baseline, there were no significant differences in laboratory studies between the two groups. After 4 months of intervention, along with significant improvement in hemoglobin A1c in the pioglitazone group, daily insulin requirements also decreased and lipid profile improved significantly. In addition, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein values were significantly lower in the pioglitazone group (P = .03, P < .001, and P = .01). Interleukin-18 levels were not significantly different at the end of the study between the two groups, but it had a decreasing trend in the pioglitazone group (P = .002). Conclusions. Pioglitazone complementing insulin in diabetic kidney transplant patients not only improved glycemic control, evidenced by hemoglobin A1c, and reduced daily insulin requirement, but also decreased inflammatory markers which may have an impact on overall cardiovascular events and mortalities beyond glycemic control. IJKD 2014;8:408-16 www.ijkd.orgIranian journal of kidney diseases 09/2014; · 0.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Increased clustering of metabolic risk factors has been demonstrated in patients with hypopituitarism on standard replacement therapy. This usually has been attributed to persistent growth hormone deficiency, though contribution from underlying etiology of hypopituitarism cannot be underestimated. We, therefore, studied conventional metabolic risk factors and pro inflammatory markers in a cohort of hypopituitary patients in whom the etiology was Sheehan's syndrome.Pituitary 05/2014; · 2.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is a combined metabolic disorder which includes hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, stroke and several other complications. Various groups all over the world are relentlessly working out the possible role of a vast number of genes associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Inflammation is an important outcome of any kind of imbalance in the body and is therefore an indicator of several diseases, including T2DM. Various ethnic populations around the world show different levels of variations in single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The present review was undertaken to explore the association of cytokine gene polymorphisms with T2DM in populations of different ethnicities. This will lead to the understanding of the role of cytokine genes in T2DM risk and development. Association studies of genotypes of SNPs present in cytokine genes will help to identify risk haplotype(s) for disease susceptibility by developing prognostic markers and alter treatment strategies for T2DM and related complications. This will enable individuals at risk to take prior precautionary measures and avoid or delay the onset of the disease. Future challenges will be to understand the genotypic interactions between SNPs in one cytokine gene or several genes at different loci and study their association with T2DM.World journal of diabetes. 08/2014; 5(4):493-504.