Cytokine profiles and inflammatory cells during HSV-1-induced acute retinal necrosis.

Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, The Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia, USA.
Investigative Ophthalmology &amp Visual Science (Impact Factor: 3.44). 05/2005; 46(4):1356-63. DOI: 10.1167/iovs.04-1284
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To investigate infiltrating cells, cytokines, and kinetics of cytokine expression during acute retinal necrosis (ARN) in the uninoculated eye after inoculation of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 into the anterior chamber of one eye of BALB/c mice.
At different time points after inoculation of 2 x 10(4) plaque-forming units (PFU) HSV-1 (KOS strain) or an equivalent volume of Vero cell extract in cell culture medium, the uninoculated eyes were enucleated. RT-PCRs for TNFalpha, IFNgamma, and IL-4 and immunohistochemical staining were performed to identify infiltrating cells and cytokines. Cytometric bead array was used to measure the levels of TNFalpha, IFNgamma, and IL-4 protein.
CD4(+) T cells, F4/80(+) macrophages, Gr-1(+) polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs), and CD19(+) B cells were detected in the uninoculated eye of virus-infected mice. Furthermore, RPE65(+) retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and activated Muller cells were also detected in the ARN lesion. TNFalpha, IFNgamma, and IL-4 mRNA and protein were upregulated during the evolution of ARN in HSV-1-infected contralateral eyes compared with levels in control subjects. Immunohistochemistry revealed that cytokines were produced by infiltrating cells as well as by resident retinal cells.
The results of these studies support the idea that T cells and cytokines are actively involved in HSV-1 retinitis. They also suggest that PMNs, B cells, and/or macrophages, as well as resident retinal cells, such as RPE and activated Muller cells, also play a role in the pathogenesis of HSV-1 retinitis.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rhinoscleroma is a human specific chronic disease characterized by the formation of granuloma in the airways, caused by the bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies rhinoscleromatis, a species very closely related to K. pneumoniae subspecies pneumoniae. It is characterized by the appearance of specific foamy macrophages called Mikulicz cells. However, very little is known about the pathophysiological processes underlying rhinoscleroma. Herein, we characterized a murine model recapitulating the formation of Mikulicz cells in lungs and identified them as atypical inflammatory monocytes specifically recruited from the bone marrow upon K. rhinoscleromatis infection in a CCR2-independent manner. While K. pneumoniae and K. rhinoscleromatis infections induced a classical inflammatory reaction, K. rhinoscleromatis infection was characterized by a strong production of IL-10 concomitant to the appearance of Mikulicz cells. Strikingly, in the absence of IL-10, very few Mikulicz cells were observed, confirming a crucial role of IL-10 in the establishment of a proper environment leading to the maturation of these atypical monocytes. This is the first characterization of the environment leading to Mikulicz cells maturation and their identification as inflammatory monocytes.
    EMBO Molecular Medicine 04/2013; 5(4):516-30. · 7.80 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chronic, subclinical inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of several ocular diseases, including age-related macular degeneration. Proinflammatory cytokines affect tight junctions in epithelia that lack claudin-19, but in the retinal pigment epithelium claudin-19 predominates. We examined the effects of cytokines on the tight junctions of human fetal RPE (hfRPE). hfRPE was incubated with interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β), interferon-gamma (IFNγ), or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), alone or in combination. Permeability and selectivity of the tight junctions were assessed using nonionic tracers and electrophysiology. Claudins, occludin, and ZO-1 were examined using PCR, immunoblotting, and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. Only TNFα consistently reduced transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) >80%. A serum-free medium revealed two effects of TNFα: (1) decreased TER was observed only when TNFα was added to the apical side of the monolayer, and (2) expression of TNFα receptors and inhibitors of apoptosis were induced from either side of the monolayer. In untreated cultures, tight junctions were slightly cation selective, and this was affected minimally by TNFα. The results were unexplained by effects on claudin-2, claudin-3, claudin-19, occludin, and ZO-1, but changes in the morphology of the junctions and actin cytoskeleton may have a role. Claudin-19-rich tight junctions have low permeability for ionic and nonionic solutes, and are slightly cation-selective. Claudin-19 is not a direct target of TNFα. TNFα may protect RPE from apoptosis, but makes the monolayer leaky when it is presented to the apical side of the monolayer. Unlike other epithelia, IFNγ failed to augment the effect of TNFα on tight junctions.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 07/2012; 53(8):5016-28. · 3.43 Impact Factor
  • Source


Available from