[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT:
Activated mast cells are present within airway smooth muscle (ASM) bundles in eosinophilic asthma. ASM production of the chemokine CXCL10 plays a role in their recruitment. Thus the effects of glucocorticoids (fluticasone, budesonide), long-acting β2-agonists (salmeterol, formoterol) and thiazolidinediones (ciglitazone, rosiglitazone) on CXCL10 production by ASM cells (ASMC) from people with and without asthma were investigated in vitro.
Confluent serum-deprived cells were treated with the agents before and during cytokine stimulation for 0-24 h. CXCL10 protein/mRNA, IκB-α levels and p65 activity were measured using ELISA, RT PCR, immunoblotting and p65 activity assays respectively. Data were analysed using ANOVA followed by Fisher’s post-hoc test.
Fluticasone and/or salmeterol at 1 and 100 nM inhibited CXCL10 release induced by IL-1β and TNF-α, but not IFNγ or all three cytokines (cytomix). The latter was also not affected by budesonide and formoterol. In asthmatic ASMC low salmeterol, but not formoterol, concentrations increased cytomix-induced CXCL10 release and at 0.01 nM enhanced NF-κB activity. Salmeterol 0.1nM together with fluticasone 0.1 and 10 nM still increased CXCL10 release. The thiazolidinediones ciglitazone and rosiglitazone (at 25 and 100 μM) inhibited cytomix-induced CXCL10 release but these inhibitory effects were not prevented by the PPAR-g antagonist GW9662. Ciglitazone did not affect early NF-κB activity and CXCL10 mRNA production.
Thus the thiazolidinediones inhibited asthmatic ASMC CXCL10 release under conditions when common asthma therapies were ineffective or enhanced it. They may provide an alternative strategy to reduce mast cell-ASM interactions and restore normal airway physiology in asthma.
Respiratory research 10/2012; 13(1):90. DOI:10.1186/1465-9921-13-90 · 3.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT:
Toll-like receptor (TLR) mediated signaling induces pro-inflammatory responses and can both suppress and exacerbate allergic responses in the airways. The aim of our study was to directly compare the efficacy of different TLR agonists in inhibiting or exacerbating the development of Th2-mediated responses in the airways and investigate if the suppressive effects were associated with increased pro-inflammatory responses. Mice were immunized on day 0, 14 and 21 by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin/alum and exposed to ovalbumin aerosol on day 26 and 27. TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7 and TLR9 agonists (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, or 1 mg/kg) were administered intratracheally 1 h before each allergen exposure. Both the TLR7 and TLR9 agonists dose dependently reduced airway eosinophilia, while the TLR3 agonist only reduced airway eosinophilia at a dose of 1.0 mg/kg. The TLR2 and TLR4 agonists potentiated eosinophilia. All TLR agonists enhanced neutrophil numbers at doses as low as 0.01 mg/kg, in particular TLR2 and TLR4 agonists. TLR7 and TLR9 agonists also significantly reduced IL-4 and IL-5 levels and all TLR agonists, with the exception of TLR7, enhanced the amount IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α detected in the whole lung lavage. Only application of TLR9 agonist induced detectable levels of IL-10 in the lung. Suppressive effects of the TLR agonists were not dependent upon IFN-γ and IL-10 or associated with increased numbers of Foxp3(+)CD4(+) Tr cells in the lavage fluid. Airway resistance was reduced significantly only when TLR7 agonist was administered. When applied therapeutically 2 days after allergen exposure, all TLR agonists, except TLR2, similarly reduced airway eosinophilia and IL-4 levels. Taken together our results show that TLR7 agonists had the strongest anti-asthmatic effects with the lowest pro-inflammatory potential, suggesting that activating TLR7 may have the greatest potential to treat allergic disorders in humans.
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