Observations on the honey bee tracheal mite Acarapis woodi (Acari: Tarsonemidae) using low-temperature scanning electron microscopy.
ABSTRACT Observations were made of cryo-preserved honey bee tracheal mites Acarapis woodi (Rennie) using scanning electron microscopy. We describe various new morphological attributes of A. woodi based on the ability of the cryo-technique to capture live mites in natural positions and observe the Low-Temperature Scanning Electron Microscopy (LT-SEM) photographs under a 3-D viewer. Most striking was the observation that each leg has the ability to independently twist its segments with the ambulacrum rotating a minimum of 180 degrees during locomotion; this is a more sophisticated form of locomotion than has been proposed for the Acari. Adult daughter mites are known to be the dispersal instar moving from the tracheal tube to the thoracic hairs of the bee and then transferring to a new bee. We hypothesize that adult tarsal claws and setae on the legs play a role in attachment to hairs during dispersal. However, our evidence is that none of the life stases use their tarsal claws within the tracheal tubes. Larvae were observed to be 'freely moving' within the tracheal system, their tarsal claws rendered inoperative due to an enlarged swollen pulvillar pad. The solenidia of leg I are now known to have striations and the famulus is bifurcated. The bifurcated famulus, solenidial striations, and segmentation of leg IV of females may have taxonomic implications in the family Tarsonemidae. The body and leg setae of adults appear to be used as a tactile tool to sense the amount of space within the tracheal tubes; most of the setae are oriented distally and may help the mite to measure the space or radius of the tracheal tubes. The modified caudal region of the male revealed remnants of the h1 and h2 setae and a smooth clean surface, void of a film, supporting that pharate nymphs are not attached in this species.
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ABSTRACT: The European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a highly valuable, semi-free-ranging managed agricultural species. While the number of managed hives has been increasing, declines in overwinter survival, and the onset of colony collapse disorder in 2006, precipitated a large amount of research on bees' health in an effort to isolate the causative factors. A workshop was convened during which bee experts were introduced to a formal causal analysis approach to compare 39 candidate causes against specified criteria to evaluate their relationship to the reduced overwinter survivability observed since 2006 of commercial bees used in the California almond industry. Candidate causes were categorized as probable, possible, or unlikely; several candidate causes were categorized as indeterminate due to lack of information. Due to time limitations, a full causal analysis was not completed at the workshop. In this article, examples are provided to illustrate the process and provide preliminary findings, using three candidate causes. Varroa mites plus viruses were judged to be a "probable cause" of the reduced survival, while nutrient deficiency was judged to be a "possible cause." Neonicotinoid pesticides were judged to be "unlikely" as the sole cause of this reduced survival, although they could possibly be a contributing factor.Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 02/2014; 20(2):566-591. · 1.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Water mites have many survival behaviors in both adults and their progeny. Post-larval stages, including adult water mites, have no adaptations for survival outside the aquatic medium and so cannot live long outside this medium. The present paper reveals the water-seeking behavior of a Limnochares sp. (Acari: Limnocaridae) observed using a video camera. It is suggested that acarologists should use this inexpensive tool to study the many interesting behaviors of mites and ticks.International Journal of Acarology 02/2010; 36(1):21-25. · 0.69 Impact Factor
- Journal of Apicultural Research. 09/2013; 52(4):1-20.