A comparison of articaine and lidocaine for inferior alveolar nerve blocks.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to compare the degree of pulpal anesthesia obtained with 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in inferior alveolar nerve blocks. Using a crossover design, inferior alveolar nerve blocks were randomly administered, in a double-blind manner, using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine, at two separate appointments, to 57 subjects. A pulp tester was used to test for anesthesia, in 4-min cycles for 60 min, of the molars, premolars, central, and lateral incisors. Anesthesia was considered successful when two consecutive 80 readings were obtained within 15 min and the 80 reading was continuously sustained for 60 min. Using the articaine solution, successful pulpal anesthesia ranged from 4 to 54% from the central incisor to the second molar. Using the lidocaine solution, successful pulpal anesthesia ranged from 2 to 48%. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the articaine and lidocaine solutions. We concluded that 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine was similar to 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in inferior alveolar nerve blocks.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of the supplemental intraosseous injection, using the X-tip system in an apical location, in mandibular posterior teeth diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis when the conventional inferior alveolar nerve block failed. Thirty-three emergency patients, diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth, received an inferior alveolar nerve block and had moderate-to-severe pain on endodontic access. The X-tip system was used to administer 1.8 ml of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. The X-tip injection site was 3- to 7-mm apical to the mucogingival junction of the affected tooth. Success of the X-tip intraosseous injection was defined as none or mild pain on endodontic access or initial instrumentation. The results of this study demonstrated that 6 of 33 (18%) X-tip injections resulted in backflow of anesthetic solution into the oral cavity; none were successful in obtaining anesthesia. Twenty-seven of the remaining 33 X-tip injections (82%) were successful. We conclude that when the inferior alveolar nerve block fails to provide profound pulpal anesthesia, the X-tip system, when used in an apical location and when there was no backflow of the anesthetic solution into the oral cavity, was successful in achieving pulpal anesthesia in mandibular posterior teeth of patients presenting with irreversible pulpitis.Journal of Endodontics 12/2003; 29(11):724-8. · 2.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The authors conducted literature review to create a heightened awareness of the potential for developing toxic methemoglobinemia from local anesthetics. Methemoglobin normally is present in the blood at levels less than 1 percent. Levels may become toxic as hemoglobin is oxidized to methemoglobin after local anesthetics such as benzocaine and prilocaine are administered. The authors searched the medical and pharmaceutical industry literature. They found and reviewed case studies of incidences of methemoglobinemia that resulted from local anesthetic overdoses. Cases of local anesthetic-induced methemoglobinemia in dental practice are under-recognized and rare. Reported cases of prilocaine-induced methemoglobinemia have resulted in recent changes in some prilocaine literature. These changes include maximum recommended doses for patients of various weights. Dentists should identify patients who are at increased risk of developing methemoglobinemia before administering local anesthetics. They also should follow new recommended dosing guidelines for prilocaine and be aware of symptoms of this adverse reaction.Journal of the American Dental Association (1939) 07/1999; 130(6):826-31. · 1.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of a supplemental intraosseous injection of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in teeth diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis. Fifty-one patients with symptomatic, vital maxillary, and mandibular posterior teeth diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis received conventional infiltrations or inferior alveolar nerve blocks. Pulp testing was used to determine pulpal anesthesia after "clinically successful" injections. Patients who were positive to the pulp tests, or were negative to the pulp tests but felt pain during endodontic access, received an intraosseous injection using 1.8 ml of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. The results demonstrated that 42% of the patients who tested negative to the pulp tests reported pain during treatment and required supplemental anesthesia. Eighty-one percent of the mandibular teeth and 12% of maxillary teeth required an intraosseous injection due to failure to gain pulpal anesthesia. Overall, the Stabident intraosseous injection was found to be 88% successful in gaining total pulpal anesthesia for endodontic therapy. We concluded that, for posterior teeth diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis, the supplemental intraosseous injection of 2% lidocaine (1:100,000 epinephrine) was successful when conventional techniques failed.Journal of Endodontics 08/1998; 24(7):487-91. · 2.93 Impact Factor