Cardiorespiratory fitness attenuates metabolic risk independent of abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat in men.
ABSTRACT Moderate to high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with a lower risk of the metabolic syndrome and all-cause mortality. Unknown is whether CRF attenuates health risk for a given level of abdominal visceral fat, subcutaneous fat, and/or waist circumference.
The sample studied comprised 297 apparently healthy men with available computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scans of the abdomen, metabolic data, and maximal treadmill exercise test results. Men were categorized into low-CRF (20%, n = 56), moderate-CRF (40%, n = 94), and high-CRF (40%, n = 147) groups based on age and exercise test results. All analyses were adjusted for age.
For a given level of waist circumference, visceral fat, or subcutaneous fat, the high-CRF group had lower triglyceride levels (P < 0.05) and higher HDL cholesterol levels than the low- or moderate-CRF groups. There was a significant group interaction (P < 0.01) for blood pressure, indicating that the increase in blood pressure per unit increase in visceral fat or waist circumference was greater in men in the low-CRF group compared with the high-CRF group. The relative risks of having the metabolic syndrome were 1.8 (95% CI 1.0-3.1) and 1.6 (0.9-2.7) times higher in the low- and moderate-CRF groups, respectively, compared with the high-CRF group after adjusting for age, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat (P for trend = 0.06).
High levels of CRF are associated with a substantial reduction in health risk for a given level of visceral and subcutaneous fat.
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ABSTRACT: Lower habitual physical activity and poor cardiorespiratory fitness are common features of the metabolically abnormal obese (MAO) phenotype that contribute to increased cardiovascular disease risk. The aims of the present study were to determine 1) whether community-based exercise training transitions MAO adults to metabolically healthy, and 2) whether the odds of transition to metabolically healthy were larger for obese individuals who performed higher volumes of exercise and/or experienced greater increases in fitness.Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy 01/2014; 7:369-80.
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ABSTRACT: With the increasing prevalence of sedentary behaviors during childhood, a greater understanding of the extent to which excess adiposity and aerobic fitness relate to cognitive health is of increasing importance. To date, however, the vast majority of research in this area has focused on adiposity or fitness, rather than the possible inter-relationship, as it relates to cognition. Accordingly, this study examined the differential associations between body composition, aerobic fitness, and cognitive control in a sample of 204 (96 female) preadolescent children. Participants completed a modified flanker task (i.e., inhibition) and a switch task (i.e., cognitive flexibility) to assess two aspects of cognitive control. Findings from this study indicate that fitness and adiposity appear to be separable factors as they relate to cognitive control, given that the interaction of fitness and adiposity was observed to be nonsignificant for both the flanker and switch tasks. Fitness exhibited an independent association with both inhibition and cognitive flexibility whereas adiposity exhibited an independent association only with cognitive flexibility. These results suggest that while childhood obesity and fitness appear to both be related to cognitive control, they may be differentially associated with its component processes.Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 12/2014; 79(4). · 5.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Obesity is associated with multiple negative health consequences and current weight management guidelines recommend all obese persons to lose weight. However, recent evidence suggests that not all obese persons are negatively affected by their weight and that weight loss does not necessarily always improve health. The purpose of this review is not to trivialize the significant health risks associated with obesity, but to discuss subpopulations of obese people who are not adversely affected, or may even benefit from higher adiposity, and in who weight loss per se may not always be the most appropriate recommendation. More specifically, this review will take a devil's advocate position when discussing the consequences of obesity and weight loss for adults with established cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, weight cyclers, metabolically healthy obese adults, youth, older adults and obese individuals who are highly fit.Obesity Reviews 12/2014; · 7.86 Impact Factor