Cardiorespiratory Fitness Attenuates Metabolic Risk Independent of Abdominal Subcutaneous and Visceral Fat in Men
ABSTRACT Moderate to high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with a lower risk of the metabolic syndrome and all-cause mortality. Unknown is whether CRF attenuates health risk for a given level of abdominal visceral fat, subcutaneous fat, and/or waist circumference.
The sample studied comprised 297 apparently healthy men with available computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scans of the abdomen, metabolic data, and maximal treadmill exercise test results. Men were categorized into low-CRF (20%, n = 56), moderate-CRF (40%, n = 94), and high-CRF (40%, n = 147) groups based on age and exercise test results. All analyses were adjusted for age.
For a given level of waist circumference, visceral fat, or subcutaneous fat, the high-CRF group had lower triglyceride levels (P < 0.05) and higher HDL cholesterol levels than the low- or moderate-CRF groups. There was a significant group interaction (P < 0.01) for blood pressure, indicating that the increase in blood pressure per unit increase in visceral fat or waist circumference was greater in men in the low-CRF group compared with the high-CRF group. The relative risks of having the metabolic syndrome were 1.8 (95% CI 1.0-3.1) and 1.6 (0.9-2.7) times higher in the low- and moderate-CRF groups, respectively, compared with the high-CRF group after adjusting for age, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat (P for trend = 0.06).
High levels of CRF are associated with a substantial reduction in health risk for a given level of visceral and subcutaneous fat.
- SourceAvailable from: Anne M May
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- "These were mainly done in young participants and results were inconclusive. Some found an independent effect of physical fitness on LDL cholesterol levels   or on triglyceride levels , or an independent effect of physical activity on the MetS , whereas others reported no effect  . Here, we studied the association of visceral fat with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its separate components; the associations of both physical activity and muscle strength with the MetS and its separate components independent of visceral fat. "
ABSTRACT: We investigated the association of visceral fat with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its separate components; the associations of both physical activity and muscle strength with the MetS and its separate components independent of visceral fat. Furthermore, we studied these associations within participants with low and high amounts of visceral fat. 400 men (aged 40-80 years) were recruited into a cross-sectional study. Main outcome measures: Logistic regression models were used to study the individual associations in all participants (OR). The associations of physical activity (active vs inactive) and muscle strength (high vs low) within participants with low and high levels of visceral fat (assessed by ultrasonography) were tested using Univariate Analysis of Variance (difference in mean levels of the separate components of MetS) and logistic regression (risk on MetS). High levels of visceral fat were significantly associated with increased risk of MetS (OR 1.7 95%CI 1.5;1.9) and its separate components (p<0.05). We did not find strong individual associations for physical activity or muscle strength, neither within men with low or high levels of visceral fat. High body fat levels were associated with an unhealthier metabolic risk profile and a higher risk of the MetS. Our cross-sectional data do not indicate associations for physical activity or for muscle strength with the MetS independent of visceral fat. Also no differential associations of physical activity or muscle strength in men with low or high levels of visceral fat were found.Maturitas 07/2013; 76(2). DOI:10.1016/j.maturitas.2013.06.015 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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- "However, because low fitness and excess body fat often occur in combination, it is important to distinguish the separate effects on metabolic risk factors related to MeS. A few recent studies have examined the relative contribution of abdominal adiposity and CRF to metabolic risk, demonstrating that higher CRF and lower abdominal adiposity are each independently associated with a substantial reduction in metabolic risk related to MeS (Hassinen et al., 2008; Lee et al., 2005). However, few studies have investigated the independent contribution of muscular strength and abdominal fat to individual and clustered metabolic risk factors. "
ABSTRACT: We examined whether cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen uptake, VO(2)max) and muscular strength (grip strength) are associated with individual and clustered metabolic risk factors independently of abdominal adiposity in Japanese men (n=110) and women (n=110) aged 20-69 years. Blood pressure, triglycerides (TG), HDL cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) were assessed and metabolic risk score was calculated, which is the sum of the z scores for each individual risk factor. Waist circumference was measured and the area of visceral fat was assessed by MRI. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that VO(2)max was inversely associated with TG in men (p<0.05) and grip strength was negatively associated with FPG and metabolic risk score in women (p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively), independently of waist circumference. Adjusting for visceral fat instead of waist circumference, similar results were obtained in women (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively), but the association between VO(2)max and TG in men was attenuated to nonsignificant. This cross-sectional study demonstrates that muscular strength is inversely associated with plasma glucose levels and clustered metabolic risk factors independently of abdominal adiposity in Japanese women, but not in men.Journal of PHYSIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 07/2011; 30(4):133-9. DOI:10.2114/jpa2.30.133 · 1.27 Impact Factor
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- "In a cross-sectional study of healthy men without diabetes, those with low CRF, in comparison with those with high CRF, had higher triglyceride, apolipoprotein B (a strong predictor of CHD events), and total cholesterol– HDL cholesterol ratio after matching individuals with similar BMI (Arsenault et al., 2007). There are similar findings from another cross-sectional study of 297 healthy men, for a given level of waist circumference, visceral fat, or subcutaneous fat (Lee et al., 2005). A recent randomized controlled trial of 217 men and women with exercise training and dietary instruction evaluated associations among lifestyle improvements , in particular increased CRF, and changes in the blood lipid profile (Kawano et al., 2009). "
ABSTRACT: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is not only an objective measure of habitual physical activity, but also a useful diagnostic and prognostic health indicator for patients in clinical settings. Although compelling evidence has shown that CRF is a strong and independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality, the importance of CRF is often overlooked from a clinical perspective compared with other risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, smoking, or obesity. Several prospective studies indicate that CRF is at least as important as the traditional risk factors, and is often more strongly associated with mortality. In addition, previous studies report that CRF appears to attenuate the increased risk of death associated with obesity. Most individuals can improve their CRF through regular physical activity. Several biological mechanisms suggest that CRF improves insulin sensitivity, blood lipid profile, body composition, inflammation, and blood pressure. Based on the evidence, health professionals should encourage their patients to improve CRF through regular physical activity.Journal of Psychopharmacology 11/2010; 24(4 Suppl):27-35. DOI:10.1177/1359786810382057 · 2.81 Impact Factor