Article

The Strange Stories test: A replication study of children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome

Lillehammer University, College Faculty of Social Sciences, Gudbrandsdalsvegen 350, 2624 Lillehammer, Norway.
European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 3.55). 04/2005; 14(2):73-82. DOI: 10.1007/s00787-005-0434-2
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to assess the ability of 21 children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS) of normal intelligence to infer mental states in a story context using Happe's Strange Stories test. The participants in the AS group were compared with an age-matched control group (N=20) of normally developing children and adolescents on a test of social understanding. The test material comprised social communication such as Pretence, Joke, Lie, White Lie, Figure of Speech, Misunderstanding, Persuasion, Irony, Double Bluff and Contrary Emotions, Appearance/Reality and Forgetting. As compared to the controls, the participants in the AS group performed less well on these tasks, and answered fewer correct mental state inferences, but performed well on a physical state control task. This study supports the main finding of earlier studies, showing that even individuals with AS of normal intelligence have problems in using mental state terms context-appropriately when tested on the Strange Stories test.

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    • "Our findings are in contrast to previous studies reporting no ASD-related difficulties in making physical inferences in participants with ASD ages 8–45 years (Happé 1994) and participants with Asperger syndrome ages 10–20 years (Kaland et al. 2005). However, in both of those studies, the physical scenarios were used either as a screening tool (Happé 1994) or to check for possible comprehension deficits (Kaland et al. 2005). The physical stories in the Table 3 Correlations and 95 % CIs between PIT and TLC-E Raw Scores in individuals with ASD (n = 86) "
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    ABSTRACT: Studies investigating inferential reasoning in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have focused on the ability to make socially-related inferences or inferences more generally. Important variables for intervention planning such as whether inferences depend on physical experiences or the nature of social information have received less consideration. A measure of bridging inferences of physical causation, mental states, and emotional states was administered to older children, adolescents, and adults with and without ASD. The ASD group had more difficulty making inferences, particularly related to emotional understanding. Results suggest that individuals with ASD may not have the stored experiential knowledge that specific inferences depend upon or have difficulties accessing relevant experiences due to linguistic limitations. Further research is needed to tease these elements apart.
    Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10803-015-2436-3 · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    • "Individuals with ALMS in the relatively better ToM subgroup provided incomplete mental inferences in the mental condition, possibly reflecting poorer mental state -understanding. Individuals with ALMS and a relatively poorer ToM displayed a performance level that is similar to individuals with high functioning autism, with a higher frequency of incorrect inferences [9] [52] [55]. Individuals with high functioning autism only deviate in the mental condition, which excludes general difficulties in reasoning as an explanation to poor mental state understanding [8]. "
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    • "Global integration test, rare homographs, strange stories, local coherent inferences * Common homographs WAIS-R all subtests Jones et al. (2009) WORD * WORD WASI-(block design and matrix reasoning) Kaland et al. (2005) (2008) Strange stories, stories from everyday life * * WISC-III all subtests LaPointe-Speer (2007) Reading short paragraphs-[content: "
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