A particle track-repeating algorithm for proton beam dose calculation.
ABSTRACT A particle track-repeating algorithm has been developed for proton beam dose calculation for radiotherapy. Monoenergetic protons with 250 MeV kinetic energy were simulated in an infinite water phantom using the GEANT3 Monte Carlo code. The changes in location, angle and energy for every transport step and the energy deposition along the track were recorded for the primary protons and all secondary particles. When calculating dose for a patient with a realistic proton beam, the pre-generated particle tracks were repeated in the patient geometry consisting of air, soft tissue and bone. The medium and density for each dose scoring voxel in the patient geometry were derived from patient CT data. The starting point, at which a proton track was repeated, was determined according to the incident proton energy. Thus, any protons with kinetic energy less than 250 MeV can be simulated. Based on the direction of the incident proton, the tracks were first rotated and for the subsequent steps, the scattering angles were simply repeated for air and soft tissue but adjusted properly based on the scattering power for bone. The particle step lengths were adjusted based on the density for air and soft tissue and also on the stopping powers for bone while keeping the energy deposition unchanged in each step. The difference in nuclear interactions and secondary particle generation between water and these materials was ignored. The algorithm has been validated by comparing the dose distributions in uniform water and layered heterogeneous phantoms with those calculated using the GEANT3 code for 120, 150, 180 and 250 MeV proton beams. The differences between them were within 2%. The new algorithm was about 13 times faster than the GEANT3 Monte Carlo code for a uniform phantom geometry and over 700 times faster for a heterogeneous phantom geometry.
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ABSTRACT: An important requirement for proton therapy is a software for dose calculation. Monte Carlo is the most accurate method for dose calculation, but it is very slow. In this work, a method is developed to improve the speed of dose calculation. The method is based on pre-generated tracks for particle transport. The MCNPX code has been used for generation of tracks. A set of data including the track of the particle was produced in each particular material (water, air, lung tissue, bone, and soft tissue). This code can transport protons in wide range of energies (up to 200 MeV for proton). The validity of the fast Monte Carlo (MC) code is evaluated with data MCNPX as a reference code. While analytical pencil beam algorithm transport shows great errors (up to 10%) near small high density heterogeneities, there was less than 2% deviation of MCNPX results in our dose calculation and isodose distribution. In terms of speed, the code runs 200 times faster than MCNPX. In the Fast MC code which is developed in this work, it takes the system less than 2 minutes to calculate dose for 10(6) particles in an Intel Core 2 Duo 2.66 GHZ desktop computer.Journal of Medical Physics 07/2014; 39(3):156-63.
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ABSTRACT: Recent developments in radiotherapy therapy demand high computation powers to solve challenging problems in a timely fashion in a clinical environment. The graphics processing unit (GPU), as an emerging high-performance computing platform, has been introduced to radiotherapy. It is particularly attractive due to its high computational power, small size, and low cost for facility deployment and maintenance. Over the past few years, GPU-based high-performance computing in radiotherapy has experienced rapid developments. A tremendous amount of study has been conducted, in which large acceleration factors compared with the conventional CPU platform have been observed. In this paper, we will first give a brief introduction to the GPU hardware structure and programming model. We will then review the current applications of GPU in major imaging-related and therapy-related problems encountered in radiotherapy. A comparison of GPU with other platforms will also be presented.Physics in Medicine and Biology 02/2014; 59(4):R151-R182. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Monte Carlo simulations are increasingly used for dose calculations in proton therapy due to its inherent accuracy. However, dosimetric deviations have been found using Monte Carlo code when high density materials are present in the proton beam line. The purpose of this work was to quantify the magnitude of dose perturbation caused by metal objects. We did this by comparing measurements and Monte Carlo predictions of dose perturbations caused by the presence of small metal spheres in several clinical proton therapy beams as functions of proton beam range, spread-out Bragg peak width and drift space. Monte Carlo codes MCNPX, GEANT4 and Fast Dose Calculator (FDC) were used. Generally good agreement was found between measurements and Monte Carlo predictions, with the average difference within 5% and maximum difference within 17%. The modification of multiple Coulomb scattering model in MCNPX code yielded improvement in accuracy and provided the best overall agreement with measurements. Our results confirmed that Monte Carlo codes are well suited for predicting multiple Coulomb scattering in proton therapy beams when short drift spaces are involved.Radiation Measurements 11/2013; 58:37-44. · 1.14 Impact Factor