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Blum JW, Jacobsen DJ, Donnelly JE. Beverage consumption patterns in elementary school aged children across a two-year period. J Am Coll Nutr 24, 93-98

Human Performance Laboratory, University of Nebraska-Kearney, Kearney, Nebraska, USA.
Journal of the American College of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 1.68). 05/2005; 24(2):93-8. DOI: 10.1080/07315724.2005.10719449
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Existing data was reexamined to determine changes in beverage consumption and associations between beverages consumed and BMI Z-score in children (n = 164) across two years.
Beverages (milk, 100% juice, diet soda or sugar sweetened) and total caloric intake were calculated from a 24-hour diet recall. Height and weight were measured to calculate BMI. Subjects were categorized by BMI Z-score as normal weight, overweight, gained weight and lost weight. Data was collected at baseline and year 2.
Significant decreases in milk and increases in diet soda were found over two years in all subjects and normal weight, whereas overweight had a significant increase in diet soda consumption and a decrease in milk consumption that did not reach significance. Change in milk consumption was inversely correlated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Increases in diet soda consumption were significantly greater for overweight and subjects who gained weight as compared to normal weight subjects. Baseline BMI Z-score and year 2 diet soda consumption predicted 83.1% of the variance in year 2 BMI Z-score.
Shifts in beverage consumption were found in this convenient sample across two years. Diet soda consumption was the only type of beverage associated with year 2 BMI Z-score, and consumption was greater in overweight subjects and subjects who gained weight as compared to normal weight subjects at two years. Additional longitudinal data examining associations between beverage consumption and BMI is needed in children and adolescents, as consumption of regular and diet soda has become more of a social norm.

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    • "Recent studies have suggested that consumption of artificial sweeteners may lead to an increased risk of excessive weight gain, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (Duffey, Steffen, Van Horn, Jacobs, & Popkin, 2012; Lutsey, Steffen, & Stevens, 2008; Yang, 2010). Several large-scale prospective cohort studies have found a positive correlation between artificial sweetener use and weight gain in adults (Colditz et al., 1990; Fowler et al., 2008; Stellman & Garfinkel, 1988) and in children (Berkey, Rockett, Field, Gillman, & Colditz, 2004; Blum, Jacobsen, & Donnelly, 2005; Striegel-Moore et al., 2006). Consistent with the findings of our study, artificial sweeteners appear to have more effects in males than in females (Berkey et al., 2004). "
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    • "Whether or not a similar effect occurs in humans is more controversial. Many studies have found correlations between artificial sweetener use and weight gain (Blum, Jacobsen, & Donnelly, 2005; Colditz et al., 1990; Fowler et al., 2008; Stellman & Garfinkel, 1988). In addition, Appleton and Blundell (2007) showed a differential effect of sweet taste on appetite as a function of artificial sweetener use. "
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    • "A number of studies indicate that children who consume soft drinks and other sweetened beverages are more likely to be or to become obese (e.g., Bermudez and Gao, 2010; Blum, Jacobsen and Donnelly, 2005; LaRowe et al., 2010; Lim et al., 2009; Ludwig et al., 2001; Papandreou et al., 2010; Vartanian et al., 2007; Welsh et al., 2005). Not only are these beverages unhealthy because of their high glycemic load and paucity of essential nutrients, but they may also displace nutritious items, such as milk, from children's diets (Bermudez and Gao, 2010; Blum, Jacobsen and Donnelly, 2005; Finkelstein et al., 2004; Fox et al., 2005; Harrington, 2008). "
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