Opposing roles of ERK, p38 MAP kinases in FGF2-induced astroglial process extension
Department of Pathology, University of Virginia Health System, PO Box 800904, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA. Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience
(Impact Factor: 3.84).
05/2005; 28(4):779-90. DOI: 10.1016/j.mcn.2004.12.010
The stellate processes of astroglial cells undergo extensive remodeling in response to neural injury. Little is known about intracellular signaling mechanisms controlling process extension. We tested roles for the ERK and p38 MAP kinase pathways in a simplified culture model. FGF2-induced process extension was preceded by a strong and transient phosphorylation of ERK, and a modest activation of p38 MAP kinase, which exhibited significant basal activity. Phosphorylated ERK was found predominantly in the cytoplasm, whereas activated p38 MAP kinase was nuclear. Process extension was completely blocked by the specific MEK inhibitor U0126. Conversely, inhibition of the p38 MAP kinase pathway with SB202190 stimulated spontaneous process growth and greatly potentiated FGF2-induced process extension. The p38 inhibitor effect was reproduced with an adenovirus expressing dominant-negative p38 MAP kinase. Selective pharmacological blockade of MAP kinase pathways may enable modulation of the astroglial response to injury so as to promote neural regeneration.
Available from: dx.plos.org
- "Several growth factors have shown to trigger MAPKs in different cell models , , , , , , , , . IGF-1 promoted phosphorylation of p38, ERK1/2 and JNKs, through which to induce expression of osterix in human mesenchymal stem cells . "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although previous studies have demonstrated that BMP9 is highly capable of inducing osteogenic differentiation and bone formation, the precise molecular mechanism involved remains to be fully elucidated. In this current study, we explore the possible involvement and detail effects of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs on BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cell (MPCs). We find that BMP9 simultaneously stimulates the activation of p38 and ERK1/2 in MPCs. BMP9-induced early osteogenic marker, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and late osteogenic markers, such as matrix mineralization and osteocalcin (OC) are inhibited by p38 inhibitor SB203580, whereas enhanced by ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059. BMP9-induced activation of Runx2 and Smads signaling are reduced by SB203580, and yet increased by PD98059 in MPCs. The in vitro effects of inhibitors are reproduced with adenoviruses expressing siRNA targeted p38 and ERK1/2, respectively. Using mouse calvarial organ culture and subcutaneous MPCs implantation, we find that inhibition of p38 activity leads to significant decrease in BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation and bone formation, however, blockage of ERK1/2 results in effective increase in BMP9-indcued osteogenic differentiation in vivo. Together, our results reveal that p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs are activated in BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation of MPCs. What is most noteworthy, however, is that p38 and ERK1/2 act in opposition to regulate BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation of MPCs.
PLoS ONE 08/2012; 7(8):e43383. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0043383 · 3.23 Impact Factor
Available from: Xiangjun Kong
- "Measuring cell dendricity was performed as previously described . "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is an important mediator of extracellular matrix integrin signaling, cell motility, cell proliferation and cell survival. Increased FAK expression is observed in a variety of solid human tumors and increased FAK expression and activity frequently correlate with metastatic disease and poor prognosis. Herein we identify miR-7 as a direct regulator of FAK expression. miR-7 expression is decreased in malignant versus normal breast tissue and its expression correlates inversely with metastasis in human breast cancer patients. Forced expression of miR-7 produced increased E-CADHERIN and decreased FIBRONECTIN and VIMENTIN expression in breast cancer cells. The levels of miR-7 expression was positively correlated with E-CADHERIN mRNA and negatively correlated with VIMENTIN mRNA levels in breast cancer samples. Forced expression of miR-7 in aggressive breast cancer cell lines suppressed tumor cell monolayer proliferation, anchorage independent growth, three-dimensional growth in Matrigel, migration and invasion. Conversely, inhibition of miR-7 in the HBL-100 mammary epithelial cell line promoted cell proliferation and anchorage independent growth. Rescue of FAK expression reversed miR-7 suppression of migration and invasion. miR-7 also inhibited primary breast tumor development, local invasion and metastatic colonization of breast cancer xenografts. Thus, miR-7 expression is decreased in metastatic breast cancer, correlates with the level of epithelial differentiation of the tumor and inhibits metastatic progression.
PLoS ONE 08/2012; 7(8):e41523. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0041523 · 3.23 Impact Factor
Available from: PubMed Central
- "Actin dynamics and cell morphology have been shown to be regulated by several factors, including mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). For instance, the MEK inhibitor, U0126, blocks stellate process extension of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2)-treated astroglia in vitro, while inhibition of the p38 MAPK pathway by SB202190 facilitate stellate process growth and extension of the same cells (Heffron and Mandell, 2005). The p38 MAPK cascade regulates actin polymerization in platelet-derived growth factor-induced cytoskeleton remodeling of aortic smooth muscle cells (Pichon et al., 2004). "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cultured cortical primary astroglia treated with zinc died while rapidly detached from culture plates, a distinct part of zinc-treated astroglia. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the rapid change in the morphologic integrity of zinc-treated astroglia. Among the early cellular events occurring in zinc-treated astroglia, strong activation of p38 MAPK and JNK was evident. Although inhibitors of p38 (SB203580 and SB202190) or JNK (SP600125) did not protect zinc-insulted astroglia from cell death, the p38 inhibitors, but not the JNK inhibitor, suppressed actin filament and cell morphology disruption. The Ca(2+) ionophore, A23187, also suppressed actin filament and cell morphology disruption, but not cell death, of zinc-insulted astroglia. However, A23187 did not inhibit p38 MAPK activation in zinc-treated astroglia. Together these results suggest that zinc influx in astroglia results in rapid loss of the morphologic integrity via mechanisms regulated by p38 kinase and/or Ca(2+) signaling.
03/2011; 20(1):45-53. DOI:10.5607/en.2011.20.1.45
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.