Identification of degradation products formed during performic oxidation of peptides and proteins by high-performance liquid chromatography with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization and tandem mass spectrometry.
ABSTRACT Oxidation of proteins with performic acid is extensively used to cleave disulfide bonds. Due to its efficiency and many other advantages it deserves more attention especially in proteomics as a method for sample treatment. However, some unwanted degradations can occur during performic oxidation. In this work the degradation products during performic oxidation of two peptides and bovine serum albumin as model substrates were explored by coupling high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOFMS). In addition to well-known modifications such as oxidation of tryptophan and oxidation and chlorination of tyrosine, novel degradation products including nonspecific cleavage after asparagine or tryptophan, formylation of lysine, and beta-elimination of cysteine, were observed. Although almost all of these modification/degradation products except oxidation products of tryptophan were formed at sub-stoichiometric levels, they can cause confusion as a result of the sensitivity of mass spectrometry in analysis of the oxidized samples, especially in proteomics research. The results presented here will facilitate the interpretation of analytical data for performate-oxidized samples, and help to select appropriate methods for each unique sample.
Article: N-terminal tagging strategy for de novo sequencing of short peptides by ESI-MS/MS and MALDI-MS/MS.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The major portion of skin secretory peptidome of the European Tree frog Hyla arborea consists of short peptides from tryptophyllin family. It is known that b-ions of these peptides undergo head-to-tail cyclization, forming a ring that can open, resulting in several linear forms. As a result, the spectrum contains multiple ion series, thus complicating de novo sequencing. This was observed in the Q-TOF spectrum of one of the tryptophyllins isolated from Hyla arborea; the sequence FLPFFP-NH(2) was established by Edman degradation and counter-synthesis. Though no rearrangements were observed in FTICR-MS and MALDI-TOF/TOF spectra, both of them were not suitable for mass-spectrometry sequencing due to the low sequence coverage. To obtain full amino acid sequence by mass spectrometry, three chemical modifications to N-terminal amino moiety were applied. They include acetylation and sulfobenzoylation of N-amino group and its transformation to 2,4,6-trimethylpyridinium by interaction with 2,4,6-trimethylpyrillium tetrafluoroborate. All three reagents block scrambling and provide spectra better than the intact peptide. Unfortunately, all of them also readily react with lysine side chain. Hence, all investigated procedures can be used to improve sequencing of short peptides, while acetylation is the recommended one. It shows excellent results, and it is plain and simple to perform. This is the procedure of choice for MS-sequencing of short peptides by manual or automatic algorithms.Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 09/2009; 21(1):104-11. · 4.00 Impact Factor
Article: Improved quantitative mass spectrometry methods for characterizing complex ubiquitin signals.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ubiquitinated substrates can be recruited to macromolecular complexes through interactions between their covalently bound ubiquitin (Ub) signals and Ub receptor proteins. To develop a functional understanding of the Ub system in vivo, methods are needed to determine the composition of Ub signals on individual substrates and in protein mixtures. Mass spectrometry has emerged as an important tool for characterizing the various forms of Ub. In the Ubiquitin-AQUA approach, synthetic isotopically labeled internal standard peptides are used to quantify unbranched peptides and the branched -GG signature peptides generated by trypsin digestion of Ub signals. Here we have built upon existing methods and established a comprehensive platform for the characterization of Ub signals. Digested peptides and isotopically labeled standards are analyzed either by selected reaction monitoring on a QTRAP mass spectrometer or by narrow window extracted ion chromatograms on a high resolution LTQ-Orbitrap. Additional peptides are now monitored to account for the N terminus of ubiquitin, linear polyUb chains, the peptides surrounding K33 and K48, and incomplete digestion products. Using this expanded battery of peptides, the total amount of Ub in a sample can be determined from multiple loci within the protein, minimizing possible confounding effects of complex Ub signals, digestion abnormalities, or use of mutant Ub in experiments. These methods have been useful for the characterization of in vitro, multistage ubiquitination and have now been extended to reactions catalyzed by multiple E2 enzymes. One question arising from in vitro studies is whether individual protein substrates in cells may be modified by multiple forms of polyUb. Here we have taken advantage of recently developed polyubiquitin linkage-specific antibodies recognizing K48- and K63-linked polyUb chains, coupled with these mass spectrometry methods, to further evaluate the abundance of mixed linkage Ub substrates in cultured mammalian cells. By combining these two powerful tools, we show that polyubiquitinated substrates purified from cells can be modified by mixtures of K48, K63, and K11 linkages.Molecular & Cellular Proteomics 11/2010; 10(5):M110.003756. · 7.40 Impact Factor
Article: Novel cysteine tags for the sequencing of non-tryptic disulfide peptides of anurans: ESI-MS study of fragmentation efficiency.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mass spectrometry faces considerable difficulties in de novo sequencing of long non-tryptic peptides with S-S bonds. Long disulfide-containing peptides brevinins 1E and 2Ec from frog Rana ridibunda were reduced and alkylated with nine novel and three known derivatizing agents. Eight of the novel reagents are maleimide derivatives. Modified samples were subjected to MS/MS studies on FT-ICR and Orbitrap mass spectrometers using CAD/HCD or ECD/ETD techniques. Procedures, fragmentation patterns, and sequence coverage for two peptides modified with 12 tags are described. ECD/ETD and CAD fragmentation revealed complementary sequence information. Higher-energy collisionally activated dissociation (HCD) sufficiently enhanced y-ions formation for brevinin 1E, but not for brevinin 2Ec. Some novel tags [N-benzylmaleimide, N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)maleimide] along with known N-phenylmaleimide and iodoacetic acid showed high total sequence coverage taking into account combined ETD and HCD fragmentation. Moreover, modification of long (34 residues) brevinin 2Ec with N-benzylmaleimide or N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)maleimide yielded high sequence coverage and full C-terminal sequence determination with ECD alone.Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 12/2011; 22(12):2246-55. · 4.00 Impact Factor