Neurocognitive Consequences of Sleep Deprivation

Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States
Seminars in Neurology (Impact Factor: 1.79). 04/2005; 25(1):117-29. DOI: 10.1055/s-2005-867080
Source: PubMed


Deficits in daytime performance due to sleep loss are experienced universally and associated with a significant social, financial, and human cost. Microsleeps, sleep attacks, and lapses in cognition increase with sleep loss as a function of state instability. Sleep deprivation studies repeatedly show a variable (negative) impact on mood, cognitive performance, and motor function due to an increasing sleep propensity and destabilization of the wake state. Specific neurocognitive domains including executive attention, working memory, and divergent higher cognitive functions are particularly vulnerable to sleep loss. In humans, functional metabolic and neurophysiological studies demonstrate that neural systems involved in executive function (i.e., prefrontal cortex) are more susceptible to sleep deprivation in some individuals than others. Recent chronic partial sleep deprivation experiments, which more closely replicate sleep loss in society, demonstrate that profound neurocognitive deficits accumulate over time in the face of subjective adaptation to the sensation of sleepiness. Sleep deprivation associated with disease-related sleep fragmentation (i.e., sleep apnea and restless legs syndrome) also results in neurocognitive performance decrements similar to those seen in sleep restriction studies. Performance deficits associated with sleep disorders are often viewed as a simple function of disease severity; however, recent experiments suggest that individual vulnerability to sleep loss may play a more critical role than previously thought.

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    • "Sleep is a complex and critical biological process that is impacted by both genetic and non-genetic factors in humans. Inadequate sleep can lead to several health issues such as impaired immune function [Aldabal and Bahammam, 2011], increased risk for type II diabetes and obesity [Knutson et al., 2007], and cognitive impairment [Van Dongen et al., 2003; Durmer and Dinges, 2005]. Furthermore, sleep deprivation is associated with common psychiatric conditions such as anxiety and depression [van Mill et al., 2010]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Sleep is critical to health and functionality, and several studies have investigated the inherited component of insomnia and other sleep disorders using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, genome-wide studies focused on sleep duration are less common. Here, we used data from participants in the Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative (CPMC) (n = 4,401) to examine putative associations between self-reported sleep duration, demographic and lifestyle variables, and genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data to better understand genetic contributions to variation in sleep duration. We employed stepwise ordered logistic regression to select our model and retained the following predictive variables: age, gender, weight, physical activity, physical activity at work, smoking status, alcohol consumption, ethnicity, and ancestry (as measured by principal components analysis) in our association testing. Several of our strongest candidate genes were previously identified in GWAS related to sleep duration (TSHZ2, ABCC9, FBXO15) and narcolepsy (NFATC2, SALL4). In addition, we have identified novel candidate genes for involvement in sleep duration including SORCS1 and ELOVL2. Our results demonstrate that the self-reported data collected through the CPMC are robust, and our genome-wide association analysis has identified novel candidate genes involved in sleep duration. More generally, this study contributes to a better understanding of the complexity of human sleep.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/ajmg.b.32362 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    • "SO represent a hallmark characteristic of deep non-REM sleep, and their initial amplitude and slope of SO during nighttime sleep is thought to represent restorative processes (Tononi and Cirelli, 2006; Heller, 2013). EF in children depend on both sleep quantity and efficiency (Steenari et al., 2003); a growing body of literature suggests that beneficial (non-REM) sleep parameters are related to daytime executive functioning in ADHD (Gruber and Sadeh, 2004; Durmer and Dinges, 2005; Sadeh et al., 2006; Gruber et al., 2007, 2011). Prefrontal functions seem to be particularly vulnerable to sleep impairment (Killgore, 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Behavioral inhibition, which is a later-developing executive function (EF) and anatomically located in prefrontal areas, is impaired in attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). While optimal EFs have been shown to depend on efficient sleep in healthy subjects, the impact of sleep problems, frequently reported in ADHD, remains elusive. Findings of macroscopic sleep changes in ADHD are inconsistent, but there is emerging evidence for distinct microscopic changes with a focus on prefrontal cortical regions and non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) slow-wave sleep. Recently, slow oscillations (SO) during non-REM sleep were found to be less functional and, as such, may be involved in sleep-dependent memory impairments in ADHD. By augmenting slow-wave power through bilateral, slow oscillating transcranial direct current stimulation (so-tDCS, frequency = 0.75 Hz) during non-REM sleep, we aimed to improve daytime behavioral inhibition in children with ADHD. Fourteen boys (10-14 years) diagnosed with ADHD were included. In a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design, patients received so-tDCS either in the first or in the second experimental sleep night. Inhibition control was assessed with a visuomotor go/no-go task. Intrinsic alertness was assessed with a simple stimulus response task. To control for visuomotor performance, motor memory was assessed with a finger sequence tapping task. SO-power was enhanced during early non-REM sleep, accompanied by slowed reaction times and decreased standard deviations of reaction times, in the go/no-go task after so-tDCS. In contrast, intrinsic alertness, and motor memory performance were not improved by so-tDCS. Since behavioral inhibition but not intrinsic alertness or motor memory was improved by so-tDCS, our results suggest that lateral prefrontal slow oscillations during sleep might play a specific role for executive functioning in ADHD.
    Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 08/2015; 9:307. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2015.00307 · 4.29 Impact Factor
    • "In agreement with these findings, past research that looked specifically at hyperactivity following experimental manipulation of sleep did not find any differences in hyperactivity (Fallone et al. 2001), but rather found differences in attention (Carskadon et al. 1981b; Fallone et al. 2001; Gruber et al. 2011; Peters et al. 2009; Vriend et al. 2013). Similar results have also been found in sleep-deprived adult populations (Durmer and Dinges 2005; Van Dongen et al. 2003). However, these results appear inconsistent with correlational research that has shown increased hyperactive behaviours in children with poor sleep (Fallone et al. 2002; Hiscock et al. 2007; Melendres et al. 2004; Paavonen et al. 2009; Touchette et al. 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: The current study investigated the link between poor sleep and ADHD symptomatology. The effects of extending versus restricting sleep on subjective (questionnaires) and objective (actigraphy) measures of daytime movement were examined in 25 typically developing children aged 8-12 years. Subjective measures demonstrated an increase in ADHD symptomology following sleep restriction, with follow-up analyses indicating that findings were due to poorer attention, not changes in hyperactivity. The results of actigraphy data indicated that there were no differences found for mean or median daytime activity, but the standard deviation of activity was found to be significantly higher following sleep restriction. Contrary to the popular belief that sleep restriction results in increased overall activity, this study instead found an increase in variability of activity. This suggests that a sleep-restricted child's activity level may appear as alternating periods of high and low activity levels throughout the day.
    ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12402-015-0180-3
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