Young age at first intercourse and sexually transmitted infections in adolescents and young adults

Department of Maternal and Child Health, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7400, USA.
American Journal of Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 5.23). 05/2005; 161(8):774-80. DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwi095
Source: PubMed


The authors examined the relation between age at first vaginal intercourse and a positive nucleic acid amplification test for sexually transmitted infection (STI). A nationally representative sample of 9,844 respondents aged 18-26 years was tested for chlamydial infection, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis in wave 3 (2001-2002) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The authors used multiple logistic regression to assess the relation between age at first sexual intercourse and these STIs and to examine variation by current age, sex, race, and ethnicity. Younger ages at first intercourse were associated with higher odds of STI in comparison with older ages, but the effect diminished with increasing current age. For example, the odds of having an STI for an 18-year-old who first had intercourse at age 13 were more than twice those of an 18-year-old who first had intercourse at age 17 (prevalence odds ratio = 2.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.42, 3.59). In contrast, the odds of having an STI among 24-year-olds with first intercourse at age 13 versus those with first intercourse at age 17 were the same (prevalence odds ratio = 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 0.88, 1.39). Thus, earlier initiation of sexual intercourse is strongly associated with STIs for older adolescents but not for young adults over age 23 years.

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    • "In this study, we expand research on classes of adolescent sexual and romantic relationship experiences (Crissey, 2005; Vasilenko et al., 2014) and adolescent predictors of young adult relationship and sexual health outcomes (Harden, 2012; Kaestle et al., 2005; Meier & Allen, 2009; Raley et al., 2007; Teachman, 2003) by examining how classes marked by different patterns of behavior within adolescent relationships differ in their young adult relationship outcomes. We focus on late adolescence (16 to 18 years old), because relationships at this age are more stable and similar to adult relationships compared to younger adolescent relationships (Connolly & McIsaac, 2011) and thus may be particularly influential in shaping adult relationships . "
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    ABSTRACT: Adolescents' sexual and romantic relationship experiences are multidimensional but often studied as single constructs. Thus, it is not clear how different patterns of sexual and relationship experience may interact to differentially predict later outcomes. In this study we used latent class analysis to model patterns (latent classes) of adolescent sexual and romantic experiences, and then examined how these classes were associated with young adult sexual health and relationship outcomes in data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). We identified six adolescent relationship classes: No Relationship (33%), Waiting (22%), Intimate (38%), Private (3%), Low Involvement (3%), and Physical (2%). Adolescents in the Waiting and Intimate classes were more likely to have married by young adulthood than those in other classes, and those in the Physical class had a greater number of sexual partners and higher rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Some gender differences were found; for example, women in the Low-Involvement and Physical classes in adolescence had average or high odds of marriage, whereas men in these classes had relatively low odds of marriage. Our findings identify more and less normative patterns of romantic and sexual experiences in late adolescence and elucidate associations between adolescent experiences and adult outcomes.
    The Journal of Sex Research 10/2015; DOI:10.1080/00224499.2015.1065952 · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    • "Nonetheless, also in the Netherlands, some adolescents start engaging in sexual behaviors at an early age [1]. Early initiators are more likely to have unprotected sex [4], contract sexually transmitted infections [5], become pregnant as a teenager [6], and report undesirable long-term sexual health outcomes [7]. It is therefore important for health care and educational purposes to better understand which factors promote or delay the onset of Dutch adolescents' sexual trajectories. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: The current study investigated how parents and peers interact in promoting or delaying Dutch adolescents’ sexual initiation and intention, and focused specifically on parents as moderators of peer influence. Methods: Using a longitudinal design, two waves of online questionnaire data were collected among 900 Dutch adolescents (M = 13.8 years at T1), who were sexually inexperienced at baseline. At T1, participants reported on three types of perceived sexual peer norms: friends’ sexual behaviors (descriptive norms), friends’ sexual attitudes (injunctive norms), and experienced peer pressure to have sex. They also rated two parenting aspects at T1: the general quality of their relationship with parents, and the frequency of sexuality-specific communication with their parents. Six months later, participants reported on their experience with different sexual behaviors ranging from naked touching or caressing to intercourse, and their intention to have sex in the next school year. Results: Relationship quality with parents was significantly associated with both outcomes, with a higher relationship quality predicting smaller odds of sexual initiation, and less intention to have sex. Two significant interaction effects showed that frequent sexual communication with parents significantly reduced the effects of sexually active friends and experienced peer pressure on adolescents’ intention to have sex. Conclusions: Our findings show that different types of sexual peer norms, and both general and sexuality-specific parenting play an important role in the early stages of Dutch adolescents’ sexual trajectories. Moreover, parent-adolescent communication about sexuality can function as a buffer for the sex-stimulating effects of sexual peer norms.
    Journal of Adolescent Health 02/2014; 55(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.02.017 · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    • "The factors that were significantly and independently correlated with engagement in risky sexual behaviour included younger age, younger age of sexual debut, having discussed sexual health/contraception with a GP, regular binge drinking , and recent illicit drug use. These findings support other research that has found associations between younger age of sexual debut and risky sexual behaviour (e.g., [26] [27] [28]). Further, while investigations into the association between substance use and sexual risk-taking have produced mixed findings, with a myriad of factors complicating the relationship , including drug consumption patterns (i.e., frequency and quantity of use) and motivations for use, " binge " alcohol consumption has commonly been associated with engagement in risky sexual behaviour (such as multiple sex partners and infrequent condom use) (e.g., [29] [30] [31]). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Alcohol and other drug use and sexual risk behaviour are increasing among young Australians, with associated preventable health outcomes such as sexually transmissible infections (STIs) on the rise. Methods. A cross-sectional study of young people’s health behaviours conducted at a music festival in Melbourne, Australia, in 2011. Results. 1365 young people aged 16-29 completed the survey; 62% were female with a mean age of 20 years. The majority (94%, ) reported drinking alcohol during the previous 12 months; among those, 32% reported “binge” drinking (6+ drinks) at least weekly. Half (52%) reported ever using illicit drugs and 25% reported past month use. One-quarter (27%) were identified as being at risk of STIs through unprotected sex with new or casual partners during the previous 12 months. Multivariable analyses found that risky sexual behaviour was associated with younger age (≤19 years), younger age of sexual debut (≤15 years), having discussed sexual health/contraception with a doctor, regular binge drinking, and recent illicit drug use. Conclusion. Substance use correlated strongly with risky sexual behaviour. Further research should explore young people’s knowledge of alcohol/drug-related impairment and associated risk-taking behaviours, and campaigns should encourage appropriate STI testing among music festival attendees.
    01/2014; 2014:1-6. DOI:10.1155/2014/357239
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