Serial and parallel processing in the human auditory cortex: a magnetoencephalographic study.
ABSTRACT Although anatomical, histochemical and electrophysiological findings in both animals and humans have suggested a parallel and serial mode of auditory processing, precise activation timings of each cortical area are not well known, especially in humans. We investigated the timing of arrival of signals to multiple cortical areas using magnetoencephalography in humans. Following click stimuli applied to the left ear, activations were found in six cortical areas in the right hemisphere: the posteromedial part of Heschl's gyrus (HG) corresponding to the primary auditory cortex (PAC), the anterolateral part of the HG region on or posterior to the transverse sulcus, the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), posterior and anterior parts of the superior temporal gyrus (STG), and the planum temporale (PT). The mean onset latencies of each cortical activity were 17.1, 21.2, 25.3, 26.2, 30.9 and 47.6 ms respectively. These results suggested a serial model of auditory processing along the medio-lateral axis of the supratemporal plane and, in addition, implied the existence of several parallel streams running postero-superiorly (from the PAC to the belt region and then to the posterior STG, PPC or PT) and anteriorly (PAC-belt-anterior STG).
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Atsuko Gunji, Oct 13, 2014
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ABSTRACT: Incoming sounds are represented in the context of preceding events, and this requires a memory mechanism that integrates information over time. Here, it was demonstrated that response adaptation, the suppression of neural responses due to stimulus repetition, might reflect a computational solution that auditory cortex uses for temporal integration. Adaptation is observed in single-unit measurements as two-tone forward masking effects and as stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA). In non-invasive observations, the amplitude of the auditory N1m response adapts strongly with stimulus repetition, and it is followed by response recovery (the so-called mismatch response) to rare deviant events. The current computational simulations described the serial core-belt-parabelt structure of auditory cortex, and included synaptic adaptation, the short-term, activity-dependent depression of excitatory corticocortical connections. It was found that synaptic adaptation is sufficient for columns to respond selectively to tone pairs and complex tone sequences. These responses were defined as combination sensitive, thus reflecting temporal integration, when a strong response to a stimulus sequence was coupled with weaker responses both to the time-reversed sequence and to the isolated sequence elements. The temporal complexity of the stimulus seemed to be reflected in the proportion of combination-sensitive columns across the different regions of the model. Our results suggest that while synaptic adaptation produces facilitation and suppression effects, including SSA and the modulation of the N1m response, its functional significance may actually be in its contribution to temporal integration. This integration seems to benefit from the serial structure of auditory cortex. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.European Journal of Neuroscience 03/2015; 41(5):615-30. DOI:10.1111/ejn.12820 · 3.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Identifying inter-area communication in terms of the hierarchical organization of functional brain areas is of considerable interest in human neuroimaging. Previous studies have suggested that the direction of magneto- and electroencephalography (MEG, EEG) source currents depend on the layer-specific input patterns into a cortical area. We examined the direction in MEG source currents in a visual object recognition experiment in which there were specific expectations of activation in the fusiform region being driven by either feedforward or feedback inputs. The source for the early non-specific visual evoked response, presumably corresponding to feedforward driven activity, pointed outward, i.e., away from the white matter. In contrast, the source for the later, object-recognition related signals, expected to be driven by feedback inputs, pointed inward, toward the white matter. Associating specific features of the MEG/EEG source waveforms to feedforward and feedback inputs could provide unique information about the activation patterns within hierarchically organized cortical areas. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.Neuroscience Letters 11/2014; 585. DOI:10.1016/j.neulet.2014.11.029 · 2.06 Impact Factor