A pilot study on voucher-based incentives to promote abstinence from cigarette smoking during pregnancy and postpartum
ABSTRACT We report results from a pilot study examining the use of vouchers redeemable for retail items as incentives for smoking cessation during pregnancy and postpartum. Of 100 study-eligible women who were still smoking upon entering prenatal care, 58 were recruited from university-based and community obstetric practices to participate in a smoking cessation study. Participants were assigned to either contingent or noncontingent voucher conditions. Vouchers were available during pregnancy and for 12 weeks postpartum. In the contingent condition, vouchers were earned for biochemically verified smoking abstinence. In the noncontingent condition, vouchers were earned independent of smoking status. Abstinence monitoring and associated voucher delivery was conducted daily during the initial 5 days of the cessation effort, gradually decreased to every other week antepartum, increased to once weekly during the initial 4 weeks postpartum, and then decreased again to every other week for the remaining 8 weeks of the postpartum intervention period. Contingent vouchers increased 7-day point-prevalence abstinence at the end-of-pregnancy (37% vs. 9%) and 12-week postpartum (33% vs. 0%) assessments. That effect was sustained through the 24-week postpartum assessment (27% vs. 0%), which was 12 weeks after discontinuation of the voucher program. Total mean voucher earnings across antepartum and postpartum were 397 US dollars (SD=414 US dollars) and 313 US dollars (SD=142 dollars) in the contingent and noncontingent conditions, respectively. The magnitude of these treatment effects exceed levels typically observed with pregnant and recently postpartum smokers, and the maintenance of effects through 24 weeks postpartum extends the duration beyond those reported previously.
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ABSTRACT: A high percentage of patients relapse within months following an attempt to quit smoking. For this reason, greater understanding of the determinants of successful smoking cessation is needed. The present study assessed the effect of Contingency Management (CM) combined with Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment (CBT) on certain in-treatment behaviors (treatment retention, in-treatment smoking abstinence, and weekly decrease of cotinine levels) and examined the effects of these in-treatment behaviors on smoking status at a 6-month follow-up. A total of 154 treatment-seeking patients in a community setting were randomly assigned to a CBT, CBT plus CM for Abstinence (CMA) or to a CBT plus CM for Shaping cessation (CMS) group. Both CBT + CM procedures improved the in-treatment behaviors compared to CBT alone. These in-treatment behaviors (particularly in-treatment smoking abstinence) were associated with long-term abstinence. The effect of CM on in-treatment behaviors may partially explain the positive long-term outcomes of this procedure. Our findings extend previous knowledge about the effect of CM on smoking behavior.International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology 06/2015; 12. DOI:10.1016/j.ijchp.2015.05.003 · 2.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Financial or tangible incentives are a strategy for improving health behaviours. The mechanisms of action of incentives are complex and debated. Using a multidisciplinary integrated mixed methods study, with service-user collaboration throughout, we developed a typology of incentives and their meanings for initiating and sustaining smoking cessation in pregnancy and breastfeeding. The ultimate aim was to inform incentive intervention design by providing insights into incentive acceptability and mechanisms of action.Social Science & Medicine 12/2014; 128C:10-17. DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.12.019 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Adjunctive behavioral smoking cessation treatments have the potential to improve outcomes beyond standard care. The present study had two aims: 1) compare standard care (SC) for smoking (four weeks of brief counseling and monitoring) to SC plus prize-based contingency management (CM), involving the chance to earn prizes on days with demonstrated smoking abstinence (carbon monoxide (CO) ≤6 ppm); and 2) compare the relative efficacy of two prize reinforcement schedules - one a traditional CM schedule, and the second an early enhanced CM schedule providing greater reinforcement magnitude in the initial week of treatment but equal overall reinforcement. Methods Participants (N = 81 nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers) were randomly assigned to one of the three conditions. Results Prize CM resulted in significant reductions in cigarette smoking relative to SC. These reductions were not apparent at follow-up. We found no meaningful differences between the traditional and enhanced CM conditions. Conclusions Our findings reveal that prize CM leads to significant reductions in smoking during treatment relative to a control intervention, but the benefits did not extend long-term.Drug and alcohol dependence 07/2014; 140. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.03.032 · 3.28 Impact Factor