Micromolar concentrations of 2-methoxyestradiol kill glioma cells by an apoptotic mechanism, without destroying their microtubule cytoskeleton
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential effects of 2-methoxyestradiol, a natural mammalian steroid, in glioma cells, since antiproliferative effects of this compound had been shown earlier in several leukemia and carcinoma cell lines. The effects of 0.2, 2 and 20 microM concentrations of 2-methoxyestradiol were measured in three malignant human glioma cell lines (U87MG, U138MG, LN405) and one malignant rat glioma cell line (RG-2) using a microtiter-tetrazolium (MTT) assay. In all cell lines, a significant reduction of the viable cell number by more then 75% occurred ( P < 0.05) for concentrations of 2 and 20 microM 2-methoxyestradiol after 6 days. A concentration of 0.2 microM had smaller effects (10-40% cell reduction), which were significant in two of the cell lines tested. The apoptotic nature of cell death was further analyzed in U87MG and RG-2 cells. Caspase-3 activity was significantly induced to levels between 3.4- and 23-fold after 4 days for the two higher 2-methoxyestradiol concentrations (P < 0.05). In the cell line RG-2 nuclear fragmentation was visible in many nuclei, following stains with Hoechst H33258. A round cell morphology occurred in most treated cells, which was not accompanied by a complete destruction of the microtubule network, as it can be observed with other microtubule targeting drugs.
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ABSTRACT: 2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME) is a cytotoxic drug that interacts with tubulin and alters microtubule dynamics. It has been reported that testosterone (T) has a neuroprotective effect against oxidative stress and induces differentiation in mouse C1300 neuroblastoma cells. Here, we investigated the ability of T to attenuate the cytotoxic effects of 2ME and to induce cell differentiation in an immortalized rat glial cell line, known as C6. C6 cells were exposed for 5 days to 5 µM 2ME, 50 nM T, or both. We evaluated the morphological changes, growth rate, vitality, catalase activity, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity in control and treated C6 cells. Western blot analyses were used to quantify expression of tyrosinated tubulin (Tyr-Tub), acetylated tubulin (Acet-Tub), total α-tubulin (TOT-Tub), and GFAP. After 2ME exposure, the cells displayed a globular, shrunken shape, and retraction or absence of cytoplasmic processes; moreover, 2ME treatment significantly decreased cell growth, cell viability, catalase activity, and expression of both Tyr-Tub and Acet-Tub. However, when T was added, the cells exhibited a glial-like shape, elongated cell processes, and enhanced cell growth, cell vitality, catalase activity, and GFAP immunoreactivity. Densitometric values of Tyr-Tub, Acet-Tub, and GFAP increased significantly when T was present, while Tot-Tub values were unaltered. These results indicate that, in C6 cells, T: (i) attenuated the morpho-functional changes caused by 2ME exposure; (ii) induced glial differentiation; and (iii) exerted a direct action on the microtubule system.Journal of Cellular Physiology 06/2011; 226(6):1510-8. DOI:10.1002/jcp.22480
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ABSTRACT: Grade 4 malignant glioma (GBM) is a fatal disease despite aggressive surgical and adjuvant therapies. The hallmark of GBM tumors is the presence of pseudopalisading necrosis and microvascular proliferation. These tumor cells are hypoxic and express hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), a prosurvival transcription factor that promotes formation of neovasculature through activation of target genes, such as vascular endothelial growth factor. Here, we evaluated whether 2-methoxyestradiol, a microtubule and HIF-1 inhibitor, would have therapeutic potential for this disease in a 9L rat orthotopic gliosarcoma model using a combination of noninvasive imaging methods: magnetic resonance imaging to measure the tumor volume and bioluminescence imaging for HIF-1 activity. After imaging, histologic data were subsequently evaluated to elucidate the drug action mechanism in vivo. Treatment with 2-methoxyestradiol (60-600 mg/kg/d) resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of tumor growth. This effect was also associated with improved tumor oxygenation as assessed by pimonidazole staining, decreased HIF-1alpha protein levels, and microtubule destabilization as assessed by deacetylation. Our results indicate that 2-methoxyestradiol may be a promising chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of malignant gliomas, with significant growth inhibition. Further studies are needed to assess the effect of low or intermediate doses of 2-methoxyestradiol in combination with chemotherapeutic agents in clinical studies focused on malignant gliomas. In addition to showing tumor growth inhibition, we identified three potential surrogate biomarkers to determine the efficacy of 2-methoxyestradiol therapy: decreased HIF-1alpha levels, alpha-tubulin acetylation, and degree of hypoxia as determined by pimonidazole staining.Cancer Research 01/2007; 66(24):11991-7. DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-1320
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ABSTRACT: The current study sought to investigate the effect of the estrogen metabolite 2-methoxyestradiol (2-MeOHE(2)) on apoptosis, cell proliferation, and collagen synthesis in human and rat leiomyoma cells. [(3)H] thymidine and [(3)H] proline incorporation studies were conducted. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cyclin D1, Bcl-2, and Bax were evaluated by Western blot. Flow cytometry analysis was used to study the effect of 2-MeOHE(2) on apoptosis and the cell cycle. Compared with untreated controls, treatment of rat leiomyoma (ELT3) cells with 2-MeOHE(2) (0.1, 1, 2, 5, or 10 muM) reduced cell proliferation by 17%, 52%, 61%, 73%, and 79%, respectively (P <.05). Similarly, in human uterine leiomyoma cell line (huLM) cells, proliferation was reduced by 4%, 18%, 37%, 41%, and 51%, respectively. 2-MeOHE(2) also caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of collagen synthesis by 4%, 16%, 23%, 51%, and 70%, respectively, in huLM cells (P <.05). Cell cycle analysis indicated that 2-MeOHE(2) treatment (1 to 5 muM) in huLM cells resulted in G(2)/M cell cycle arrest and a 45% increase in apoptosis compared with untreated control (P <.05). Western immunoblotting analysis indicated that 2-MeOHE(2) induces a concentration-dependent reduction in the expression of cyclin D1, Bcl-2, and VEGF proteins in both rat and human leiomyoma cell lines. This study provides the first evidence that 2-MeOHE(2) is a potent antiproliferative/apoptotic and collagen synthesis inhibiting agent in human and rat leiomyoma cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing the potential use of 2-methoxyestradiol as a nonsurgical alternative therapy for uterine leiomyomas.Journal of the Society for Gynecologic Investigation 01/2007; 13(8):542-50. DOI:10.1016/j.jsgi.2006.09.003