Rapid viral load suppression following generic highly active antiretroviral therapy in Southern Indian HIV-infected patients.
ABSTRACT We prospectively studied the initial results of 6 months of generic efavirenz-based therapy on the plasma viral load in 40 patients at YRG Centre for AIDS Research and Education, a tertiary HIV referral centre in southern India. The median baseline plasma viral load was 259,000 copies/ml and at 6 months 95% of patients had plasma viral loads less than 400 copies/ml. The data support the use of generic non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimens in resource-limited settings.
- JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 05/2004; 35(5):537. · 4.65 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To evaluate metabolic abnormalities, beta-cell function, lipid profile and vascular risk factors in HIV patients on protease inhibitors (PI). Prospective cross-sectional study. Thirty-eight HIV-1-infected patients receiving at least one PI were compared with 17 PI-naive HIV patients in an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Serum glucose, insulin, proinsulin, and C-peptide were determined. The fasting lipid pattern was analysed using electrophoresis and the assessment of apolipoproteins including lipoprotein (a). Fibrinogen, homocysteine, and anticardiolipin antibodies were also assessed. Twenty-seven (71%) of the PI-treated group had detectable hyperlipidaemia. Isolated hypertriglyceridaemia was present in 12 patients (44%), two (7%) of them had type V and 10 (37%) subjects had type IV hyperlipidaemia (Frederickson classification). Type IIb hyperlipidaemia defined as an increase of both very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) was found in 10 (36%) subjects, and five (18%) patients presented with isolated hypercholesterolaemia (type IIa). PI treatment was associated with significant higher fasting cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL levels. Apolipoprotein B and E concentrations were significantly increased in patients receiving PI. Elevated concentrations of lipoprotein (a) (> 30 mg/dl) were detected in six (16%) of the hyperlipidaemic patients on PI. Eighteen (46%) patients on PI had impaired oral glucose tolerance and five (13%) had diabetes. Although four (24%) of the PI-naive patients were glucose intolerant, none had diabetes. Fasting concentrations and secretion response of insulin, proinsulin, and C-peptide to glucose ingestion was significantly increased in the PI-treated group suggesting a beta-cell dysfunction in addition to peripheral insulin resistance. Beta-cell abnormalities were associated with the abnormal lipid pattern and PI treatment. Combination drug regimens including PI are accompanied by impaired glucose tolerance, hyperproinsulinaemia as an indicator for beta-cell dysfunction, and lipid abnormalities proved to be significant risk factors for coronary heart disease. Moreover, PI may have an impact on the processing of proinsulin to insulin.AIDS 07/1999; 13(10):F63-70. · 6.41 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Generic fixed-dose combinations have been prequalified by WHO to treat HIV-infected patients in resource-limited countries. Despite their widespread use they are, however, not yet recommended by some of the major donor agencies owing to scarcity of clinical data on effectiveness, safety, and quality. We aimed to assess these issues for one of the most frequently prescribed treatments in Africa, a generic fixed-dose combination of nevirapine, stavudine, and lamivudine. 60 patients were followed in an open-label, 24-week multicentre trial in Cameroon. All patients received one tablet of the fixed-dose combination drug twice daily. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of patients with viral load less than 400 copies per mL at the end of the study period, in an intention-to-treat analysis. At baseline, 92% of patients (n=55) had AIDS; median CD4 count was 118 cells per microL (IQR 78-167) and median plasma HIV-1 RNA was 104?736 copies per mL (40804-243787). The proportion of patients with undetectable viral load (<400 copies per mL) after 24 weeks of treatment was 80% (95% CI 68-89). Median (IQR) change in viral load was -3.1 log10 copies per mL (-2.5 to -3.6) and in CD4 count 83 cells per microL (40-178). The probability of remaining alive or free of new AIDS-defining events was 0.85 (95% CI 0.73-0.92). Frequency of disease progression was 32.0 (95% CI 16.6-61.5), severe adverse effects 17.8 (7.4-42.7), and genotypic resistance mutations 7.1 (1.8-28.4) per 100 person-years. Mean reported adherence rate was 99%. Median drug concentrations in tablets were 96% of expected values for nevirapine, 89% for stavudine, and 99% for lamivudine. Our findings lend support to use and funding of a generic fixed-dose combination of nevirapine, stavudine, and lamivudine as first-line antiretroviral treatment in developing countries.The Lancet 01/2004; 364(9428):29-34. · 39.06 Impact Factor