Ric-8 enhances G protein beta gamma-dependent signaling in response to beta gamma-binding peptides in intact cells
ABSTRACT Peptides derived from a random-peptide phage display screen with purified Gbeta(1)gamma(2) subunits as the target promote the dissociation of G protein heterotrimers in vitro and activate G protein signaling in intact cells. In vitro, one of these peptides (SIRKALNILGYPDYD; SIRK) promotes subunit dissociation by binding directly to Gbetagamma subunits and accelerating the dissociation of GalphaGDP without catalyzing nucleotide exchange. The experiments described here were designed to test whether the mechanism of SIRK action in vitro is in fact the mechanism of action in intact cells. We created a mutant of Gbeta(1) subunits (beta(1)W332A) that does not bind SIRK in vitro. Transfection of Gbeta(1)W332A mutant into Chinese hamster ovary cells blocked peptide-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), but it did not affect receptor-mediated Gbetagamma subunit-dependent ERK activation, indicating that Gbetagamma subunits are in fact the direct target in cells responsible for ERK activation. To determine whether free Galpha subunits were released from G protein heterotrimers upon peptide treatment, cells were transfected with Ric-8A, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for free GalphaGDP, but not heterotrimeric G proteins. Ric-8A-transfected cells displayed enhanced myristoyl-SIRKALNILGYPDYD (mSIRK)-dependent inositol phosphate (IP) release and ERK activation. Ric-8A also enhanced ERK activation by the G(i)-linked G protein coupled receptor agonist lysophosphatidic acid. Inhibitors of Gbetagamma subunit function blocked Ric-8-enhanced activation of ERK and IP release. These results suggest that one potential function of Ric-8 in cells is to enhance G protein Gbetagamma subunit signaling. Overall, these experiments provide further support for the hypothesis that mSIRK promotes G protein subunit dissociation to release free betagamma subunits in intact cells.
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ABSTRACT: While short exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) can elicit increased skin pigmentation, a protective response mediated by epidermal melanocytes, chronic exposure can lead to skin cancer and photoaging. However, the molecular mechanisms that allow human skin to detect and respond to UVR remain incompletely understood. UVR stimulates a retinal-dependent signaling cascade in human melanocytes that requires GTP hydrolysis and phospholipase C β (PLCβ) activity. This pathway involves the activation of transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) ion channels, an increase in intracellular Ca(2+), and an increase in cellular melanin content. Here, we investigated the identity of the G protein and downstream elements of the signaling cascade and found that UVR phototransduction is Gαq/11 dependent. Activation of Gαq/11/PLCβ signaling leads to hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2) to generate diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate (IP3). We found that PIP2 regulated TRPA1-mediated photocurrents, and IP3 stimulated intracellular Ca(2+) release. The UVR-elicited Ca(2+) response appears to involve both IP3-mediated release from intracellular stores and Ca(2+) influx through TRPA1 channels, showing the fast rising phase of the former and the slow decay of the latter. We propose that melanocytes use a UVR phototransduction mechanism that involves the activation of a Gαq/11-dependent phosphoinositide cascade, and resembles light phototransduction cascades of the eye.The Journal of General Physiology 02/2014; 143(2):203-14. DOI:10.1085/jgp.201311094 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have shown that resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase 8 (Ric-8) proteins regulate an early step of heterotrimeric G protein α (Gα) subunit biosynthesis. Here, mammalian and plant cell-free translation systems were used to study Ric-8A action during Gα subunit translation and protein folding. Gα translation rates and overall produced protein amounts were equivalent in mock and Ric-8A-immunodepleted rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL). GDP-AlF-bound Gαi, Gαq, Gα13, and Gαs produced in mock-depleted RRL had characteristic resistance to limited trypsinolysis, showing that these G proteins were folded properly. Gαi, Gαq, and Gα13, but not Gαs produced from Ric-8A-depleted RRL were not protected from trypsinization and therefore not folded correctly. Addition of recombinant Ric-8A to the Ric-8A-depleted RRL enhanced GDP-AlF-bound Gα subunit trypsin protection. Dramatic results were obtained in wheat germ extract (WGE) that has no endogenous Ric-8 component. WGE-translated Gαq was gel filtered and found to be an aggregate. Ric-8A supplementation of WGE allowed production of Gαq that gel filtered as a ∼100 kDa Ric-8A:Gαq heterodimer. Addition of GTPγS to Ric-8A-supplemented WGE Gαq translation resulted in dissociation of the Ric-8A:Gαq heterodimer and production of functional Gαq-GTPγS monomer. Excess Gβγ supplementation of WGE did not support functional Gαq production. The molecular chaperoning function of Ric-8 is to participate in the folding of nascent G protein α subunits.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2013; 110(10):3794-9. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1220943110 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Signaling via heterotrimeric G-proteins is evoked by agonist-mediated stimulation of seven transmembrane spanning receptors (GPCRs). During the last decade it has become apparent that Gα subunits can be activated by receptor-independent mechanisms. Ric-8 belongs to a highly conserved protein family that regulates heterotrimeric G-protein function, acting as a non-canonical guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEF) over a subset of Gα subunits. In this review we discuss the roles of Ric-8 in the regulation of diverse cell functions, emphasizing the contribution of its multiple domain protein structure in these diverse functions.Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 09/2012; 113(9):2797-805. DOI:10.1002/jcb.24162 · 3.37 Impact Factor