Ric-8 enhances G protein βγ-dependent signaling in response to βγ-binding peptides in intact cells
ABSTRACT Peptides derived from a random-peptide phage display screen with purified Gbeta(1)gamma(2) subunits as the target promote the dissociation of G protein heterotrimers in vitro and activate G protein signaling in intact cells. In vitro, one of these peptides (SIRKALNILGYPDYD; SIRK) promotes subunit dissociation by binding directly to Gbetagamma subunits and accelerating the dissociation of GalphaGDP without catalyzing nucleotide exchange. The experiments described here were designed to test whether the mechanism of SIRK action in vitro is in fact the mechanism of action in intact cells. We created a mutant of Gbeta(1) subunits (beta(1)W332A) that does not bind SIRK in vitro. Transfection of Gbeta(1)W332A mutant into Chinese hamster ovary cells blocked peptide-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), but it did not affect receptor-mediated Gbetagamma subunit-dependent ERK activation, indicating that Gbetagamma subunits are in fact the direct target in cells responsible for ERK activation. To determine whether free Galpha subunits were released from G protein heterotrimers upon peptide treatment, cells were transfected with Ric-8A, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for free GalphaGDP, but not heterotrimeric G proteins. Ric-8A-transfected cells displayed enhanced myristoyl-SIRKALNILGYPDYD (mSIRK)-dependent inositol phosphate (IP) release and ERK activation. Ric-8A also enhanced ERK activation by the G(i)-linked G protein coupled receptor agonist lysophosphatidic acid. Inhibitors of Gbetagamma subunit function blocked Ric-8-enhanced activation of ERK and IP release. These results suggest that one potential function of Ric-8 in cells is to enhance G protein Gbetagamma subunit signaling. Overall, these experiments provide further support for the hypothesis that mSIRK promotes G protein subunit dissociation to release free betagamma subunits in intact cells.
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- "A recent report has demonstrated that AC5 (type V adenylate cyclase) interacts with Ric8A through directly interacting at its N-terminus, and the activity of AC5 via a Gα i -dependent pathway is suppressed by the binding of Ric8A to the Nterminus of AC5 (S. C. Wang et al. 2007, 2009). Although it is not entirely clear that release of free Gβγ subunits is a mechanism that occurs within these Ric8/G-protein signaling pathways, it is worth speculating that a potential function of Ric8 is to enhance Gβγ subunit signaling (Malik et al. 2005). Thus, the interaction between MoRic8 and Mac1 will need to be clarified, and the roles of MoRic8 in the M. oryzae Pmk1 MAPK pathway in regulating appressorium development will also be investigated in future. "
ABSTRACT: An insertional mutagenesis screen was used to investigate the biology of plant infection by the devastating rice blast pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae. Here, we report the identification of a new mutant, LY-130, which is defective in multiple steps during infection-related morphogenesis and pathogenicity. Analysis of the mutation confirmed an insertion into gene MoRIC8, which encodes a 480-amino-acid protein that is a putative homologue of the Ric8 regulator of GTP-binding protein (G-protein) signaling, previously described in animals. Targeted gene deletion mutants of MoRIC8 were nonpathogenic and impaired in cellular differentiation associated with sporulation, sexual development, and plant infection. MoRic8 physically interacts with the Galpha subunit MagB in yeast two-hybrid assays and appears to act upstream of the cyclic AMP response pathway that is necessary for appressorium morphogenesis. Taken together, our results indicate that MoRic8 may act as a novel regulator of the G-protein signaling during infection-related development of rice blast fungus M. oryzae.Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 03/2010; 23(3):317-31. DOI:10.1094/MPMI-23-3-0317 · 4.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Many receptors for neurotransmitters and hormones rely upon members of the Gqalpha family of heterotrimeric G proteins to exert their actions on target cells. Galpha subunits of the Gq class of G proteins (Gqalpha, G11alpha, G14alpha and G15/16alpha) directly link receptors to activation of PLC-beta isoforms which, in turn, stimulate inositol lipid (i.e. calcium/PKC) signalling. Although Gqalpha family members share a capacity to activate PLC-beta, they also differ markedly in their biochemical properties and tissue distribution which predicts functional diversity. Nevertheless, established models suggest that Gqalpha family members are functionally redundant and that their cellular responses are a result of PLC-beta activation and downstream calcium/PKC signalling. Growing evidence, however, indicates that Gqalpha, G11alpha, G14alpha and G15/16alpha are functionally diverse and that many of their cellular actions are independent of inositol lipid signalling. Recent findings show that Gqalpha family members differ with regard to their linked receptors and downstream binding partners. Reported binding partners distinct from PLC-beta include novel candidate effector proteins, various regulatory proteins, and a growing list of scaffolding/adaptor proteins. Downstream of these signalling proteins, Gqalpha family members exhibit unexpected differences in the signalling pathways and the gene expression profiles they regulate. Finally, genetic studies using whole animal models demonstrate the importance of certain Gqalpha family members in cardiac, lung, brain and platelet functions among other physiological processes. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that Gqalpha, G11alpha, G14alpha and G15/16alpha regulate both overlapping and distinct signalling pathways, indicating that they are more functionally diverse than previously thought.Cellular Signalling 03/2006; 18(2):135-50. DOI:10.1016/j.cellsig.2005.08.004 · 4.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: RIC-8 was originally found by genetic studies on C. elegans mutants that were resistant to inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase and reported to act in vitro as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for G protein alpha subunits. However, the physiological role of a mammalian homolog Ric-8A on G protein-coupled receptor signaling in intact cells is largely unknown. We isolated Ric-8A using a yeast two-hybrid system with Galphaq and examined the role of Ric-8A on Gq-mediated signaling. The small interfering RNA of Ric-8A diminished the Gq-coupled receptor-mediated ERK activation and intracellular calcium mobilization in 293T cells. Ric-8A was translocated to the cell membrane in response to the Gq-coupled receptor stimulation. The expression of the myristoylation sequence-conjugated Ric-8A mutant was located in the membranes and shown to enhance the Gq-coupled receptor-mediated ERK activation. Moreover, this enhancement on ERK activation and the guanine nucleotide exchange activity of Ric-8A for Galphaq were inhibited by Gq selective inhibitor YM-254890. These results suggested that Ric-8A potentiates Gq-mediated signal transduction by acting as a novel-type regulator in intact cells.Genes to Cells 06/2006; 11(5):487-98. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2443.2006.00959.x · 2.86 Impact Factor