Article

King-Casas, B. et al. Getting to know you: reputation and trust in a two-person economic exchange. Science 308, 78-83

Human Neuroimaging Laboratory, Department of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
Science (Impact Factor: 31.48). 05/2005; 308(5718):78-83. DOI: 10.1126/science.1108062
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Using a multiround version of an economic exchange (trust game), we report that reciprocity expressed by one player strongly predicts future trust expressed by their partner-a behavioral finding mirrored by neural responses in the dorsal striatum. Here, analyses within and between brains revealed two signals-one encoded by response magnitude, and the other by response timing. Response magnitude correlated with the "intention to trust" on the next play of the game, and the peak of these "intention to trust" responses shifted its time of occurrence by 14 seconds as player reputations developed. This temporal transfer resembles a similar shift of reward prediction errors common to reinforcement learning models, but in the context of a social exchange. These data extend previous model-based functional magnetic resonance imaging studies into the social domain and broaden our view of the spectrum of functions implemented by the dorsal striatum.

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    • "Numerous studies have found that positive interactions lead to higher trustworthiness and cooperation [15] [46]. One of the primary means of investigating trust is through the use of economic games [3] [7] [8] [21] [34]. As a method, economic games are usually thought of as measurement instruments that capture trust. "
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    ABSTRACT: The physiological processes underlying trust are subject of intense interest in the behavioral sciences. However, very little is known about how trust modulates the affective link between individuals. We show here that trust has an effect on heart rate arousal and synchrony, a result consistent with research on joint action and experimental economics. We engaged participants in a series of joint action tasks which, for one group of participants, was interleaved with a PGG, and measured their heart synchrony and arousal. We found that that the introduction of the economic game shifted participants' attention to the dynamics of the interaction. This was followed by increased arousal and synchrony of heart rate profiles. Also, the degree of heart rate synchrony was predictive of participants' expectations regarding their partners in the economic game. We conclude that the above changes in physiology and behavior are shaped by the valuation of other people's social behavior, and ultimately indicate trust building process. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Physiology & Behavior 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.physbeh.2015.05.033 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    • "As such, food and sex are fundamental pleasures, and especially food studies have formed the basis of much hedonia research. In addition, in social species such as humans, social interactions are also fundamental rewards (King-Casas et al., 2005; Kringelbach et al., 2008; Frith and Frith, 2010; Chelnokova et al., 2014). The full repertoire of social pleasures has proven more difficult for experimental investigation and manipulation, yet e.g., the evidence from neuroimaging studies of the role of facial expressions has demonstrated that these pleasures are likely to be as pleasurable as the sensory pleasures (Kringelbach and Rolls, 2003; Rømer Thomsen et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Anhedonia, the lack of pleasure, has been shown to be a critical feature of a range of psychiatric disorders. Yet, it is currently measured primarily through subjective self-reports and as such has been difficult to submit to rigorous scientific analysis. New insights from affective neuroscience hold considerable promise in improving our understanding of anhedonia and for providing useful objective behavioral measures to complement traditional self-report measures, potentially leading to better diagnoses and novel treatments. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of hedonia research and specifically the established mechanisms of wanting, liking, and learning. Based on this framework we propose to conceptualize anhedonia as impairments in some or all of these processes, thereby departing from the longstanding view of anhedonia as solely reduced subjective experience of pleasure. We discuss how deficits in each of the reward components can lead to different expressions, or subtypes, of anhedonia affording novel ways of measurement. Specifically, we review evidence suggesting that patients suffering from depression and schizophrenia show impairments in wanting and learning, while some aspects of conscious liking seem surprisingly intact. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that anhedonia is heterogeneous across psychiatric disorders, depending on which parts of the pleasure networks are most affected. This in turn has implications for diagnosis and treatment of anhedonia.
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    • "Here, for concreteness, we consider the multi round trust task, which is a social exchange game that has been used with hundreds of pairs (dyads) of subjects, including both normal and clinical populations [14] [15] [16] [17] [18]. This game has been used to show that characteristics that only arise in multi-round interactions such as defection (agent A increases their cooperation between two rounds; agent B responds by decreasing theirs) have observable neural consequences that can be measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) [19] [14] [20] [21] [22]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Reciprocating interactions represent a central feature of all human exchanges. They have been the target of various recent experiments, with healthy participants and psychiatric populations engaging as dyads in multi-round exchanges such as a repeated trust task. Behaviour in such exchanges involves complexities related to each agent's preference for equity with their partner, beliefs about the partner's appetite for equity, beliefs about the partner's model of their partner, and so on. Agents may also plan different numbers of steps into the future. Providing a computationally precise account of the behaviour is an essential step towards understanding what underlies choices. A natural framework for this is that of an interactive partially observable Markov decision process (IPOMDP). However, the various complexities make IPOMDPs inordinately computationally challenging. Here, we show how to approximate the solution for the multi-round trust task using a variant of the Monte-Carlo tree search algorithm. We demonstrate that the algorithm is efficient and effective, and therefore can be used to invert observations of behavioural choices. We use generated behaviour to elucidate the richness and sophistication of interactive inference.
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