Getting to Know You: Reputation and Trust in a Two-Person Economic Exchange

Human Neuroimaging Laboratory, Department of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
Science (Impact Factor: 33.61). 05/2005; 308(5718):78-83. DOI: 10.1126/science.1108062
Source: PubMed


Using a multiround version of an economic exchange (trust game), we report that reciprocity expressed by one player strongly predicts future trust expressed by their partner-a behavioral finding mirrored by neural responses in the dorsal striatum. Here, analyses within and between brains revealed two signals-one encoded by response magnitude, and the other by response timing. Response magnitude correlated with the "intention to trust" on the next play of the game, and the peak of these "intention to trust" responses shifted its time of occurrence by 14 seconds as player reputations developed. This temporal transfer resembles a similar shift of reward prediction errors common to reinforcement learning models, but in the context of a social exchange. These data extend previous model-based functional magnetic resonance imaging studies into the social domain and broaden our view of the spectrum of functions implemented by the dorsal striatum.

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Available from: Colin Farrell Camerer, Oct 08, 2015
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    • "First, there were no differences in the overall earnings of points during the game by group for either the computer-simulated investor (computer, HC 229, AN-C, 228; AN-WR 209, F 5 0.62, P 5 0.54) or the trustees (subject, HC, 215, AN-C, 200; AN-WR 228, F 5 0.95, P 5 0.39). Reciprocity is a measure of the change in investment relative to the change in return (I n 2 I n 2 1 ) 2 (T n 2 1 2 T n 2 2 ), where n is the current round of the game [King-Casas et al., 2005]. For all three groups, reciprocity was predictive of subsequent investments (reciprocity correlation coefficients, HC 0.31, AN-C 0.20, AN- WR 0.11; F 5 15.9, P < 0.001), but there were significant group differences in the reciprocity correlation coefficients (F 5 4.1, P 5 0.01), with the most reciprocity observed in the HC group (Supporting Information Fig. S1). "
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    ABSTRACT: In anorexia nervosa, problems with social relationships contribute to illness, and improvements in social support are associated with recovery. Using the multiround trust game and 3T MRI, we compare neural responses in a social relationship in three groups of women: women with anorexia nervosa, women in long-term weight recovery from anorexia nervosa, and healthy comparison women. Surrogate markers related to social signals in the game were computed each round to assess whether the relationship was improving (benevolence) or deteriorating (malevolence) for each subject. Compared with healthy women, neural responses to benevolence were diminished in the precuneus and right angular gyrus in both currently-ill and weight-recovered subjects with anorexia, but neural responses to malevolence differed in the left fusiform only in currently-ill subjects. Next, using a whole-brain regression, we identified an office assessment, the positive personalizing bias, that was inversely correlated with neural activity in the occipital lobe, the precuneus and posterior cingulate, the bilateral temporoparietal junctions, and dorsal anterior cingulate, during benevolence for all groups of subjects. The positive personalizing bias is a self-report measure that assesses the degree with which a person attributes positive experiences to other people. These data suggest that problems in perceiving kindness may be a consistent trait related to the development of anorexia nervosa, whereas recognizing malevolence may be related to recovery. Future work on social brain function, in both healthy and psychiatric populations, should consider positive personalizing biases as a possible marker of neural differences related to kindness perception. Hum Brain Mapp, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Human Brain Mapping 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/hbm.23005 · 5.97 Impact Factor
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    • "One big challenge is to capture the naturally dynamic process of real interaction; another is to measure the neural signals of two persons' brain interacting simultaneously (Hari and Kujala, 2009). Previous research has combined two-person interactive economic exchange paradigms with functional MRI (fMRI) (Montague et al., 2002; King-Casas et al., 2005; Krueger et al., 2007), electroencephalography (EEG) (Babiloni et al., 2007a,b; Yun et al., 2008; Astolfi et al., 2010a,b; Fallani et al., 2010) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) (Cui et al., 2012; Jiang et al., 2012) hyperscanning to solve these two problems. During naturally occuring FF interaction, neural synchronization between couple of players has been found in two-person games, including simple cooperation and competition task (Funane et al., 2011; Cui et al., 2012), prisoner's dilemma game, card game and ultimatum game (Babiloni et al., 2007a; Yun et al., 2008; Astolfi et al., 2010a). "
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    ABSTRACT: In daily life, INTERPERSONAL: interactions are influenced by uncertainty about other people's intentions. Face-to-face interaction reduces such uncertainty by providing external visible cues such as facial expression or body gestures and facilitates shared intentionality to promote BELIEF OF COOPERATIVE DECISIONS AND ACTUAL COOPERATIVE BEHAVIORS IN INTERACTION: . However, so far little is known about INTERPERSONAL: brain synchronization BETWEEN TWO PEOPLE: engaged in naturally occurring face-to-face interactions. In this study, we combined an adapted ultimatum game with FUNCTIONAL: near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) hyperscanning to investigate how face-to-face interaction impacts INTERPERSONAL: brain synchronization during economic exchange. Pairs of strangers interacted repeatedly either face-to-face or face-blocked, while THEIR ACTIVATION WAS SIMULTANEOUSLY MEASURED: in the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ) and the CONTROL REGION: , right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (rDLPFC). Behaviorally, face-to-face interactions increased shared intentionality between strangers, LEADING MORE POSITIVE BELIEF OF COOPERATIVE DECISIONS AND MORE ACTUAL GAINS IN THE GAME: . FNIRS results indicated increased INTERPERSONAL BRAIN: synchronizations during face-to-face interactions in rTPJ (but not in rDLPFC) with greater shared intentionality between partners. These results HIGHLIGHTED THE IMPORTANCE OF RTPJ IN COLLABORATIVE SOCIAL INTERACTIONS: during face-to-face economic exchange and warrant future research that combines face-to-face interactions with fNIRS hyperscanning to study social brain disorders such as autism.
    Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 07/2015; DOI:10.1093/scan/nsv092 · 7.37 Impact Factor
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    • "The combination of monetary exchange paradigms and neuroimaging approaches has elucidated individual differences in the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying interactive social behaviors such as cooperation [4], trust [5], and betrayal [6]. Most of the inferences from these studies are based on behaviors elicited by tasks in which individuals engage in dyadic interactions while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). "
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    ABSTRACT: Reciprocation of trust exchanges is central to the development of interpersonal relationships and societal well-being. Understanding how humans make pro-social and self-centered decisions in dyadic interactions and how to predict these choices has been an area of great interest in social neuroscience. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) based technology with potential clinical application is the study of resting state brain connectivity. We tested if resting state connectivity may predict choice behavior in a social context. Twenty-nine healthy adults underwent resting state fMRI before performing the Trust Game, a two person monetary exchange game. We assessed the ability of patterns of resting-state functional brain organization, demographic characteristics and a measure of moral development, the Defining Issues Test (DIT-2), to predict individuals' decisions to reciprocate money during the Trust Game. Subjects reciprocated in 74.9% of the trials. Independent component analysis identified canonical resting-state networks. Increased functional connectivity between the salience (bilateral insula/ anterior cingulate) and central executive (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex/ posterior parietal cortex) networks significantly predicted the choice to reciprocate pro-social behavior (R(2)=0.20, p= 0.015). Stepwise linear regression analysis showed that functional connectivity between these two networks (p=0.002), age (p=0.007) and DIT-2 personal interest schema score (p=0.032) significantly predicted reciprocity behavior (R(2)=0.498, p= 0.001). Intrinsic functional connectivity between neural networks in conjunction with other individual characteristics may be a valuable tool for predicting performance during social interactions. Future replication and temporal extension of these findings may bolster the understanding of decision making in clinical, financial and marketing settings. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Behavioural brain research 07/2015; 292. DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2015.07.008 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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