Biochemical markers of bone turnover are influenced by recently sustained fracture.
ABSTRACT In striving to refine the clinical utility of different markers of bone metabolism, we should take into account numerous confounders, many of which are well known, such as sampling time, fasting status, and bone density. One further confounder may be ongoing fracture healing and/or post-fracture immobilization, which at least theoretically should impose an increased bone formation and resorption. Since both recent fracture and high bone turnover are independent predictors for new fracture, we thought it of importance to define the potential influence of such fracture on markers of bone turnover. From a population-based cohort of 1604 women, all 75 years old (the OPRA-study), 1024 women attended a clinical examination. The bone metabolism was assessed in serum, by three markers of bone formation [bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (S-Bone ALP), intact and N-Mid osteocalcin (S-Total OC), and total carboxylated osteocalcin (S-cOC)], two markers of bone resorption [C-terminal cross-linked telopeptides of type I collagen (S-CTX) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase type 5b (S-TRACP5b)], and in urine by one marker of bone resorption [deoxypyridinoline/creatinine (U-DPD/crea)] and two putative markers of bone resorption [urinary osteocalcins (U-OC/crea)]. Current physical activity and retrospective fracture data were recorded by questionnaires. The fracture data, for the entire cohort of 1604 women, were validated with radiographic referrals and reports, saved since the beginning of the last century. All data provided, except date of occurrence of retrospectively sustained fracture, were thus obtained cross-sectionally and in all women at the age of 75. Fracture had ever been sustained by 727 of the entire cohort (n = 1604), and by 523 of the attending women (n = 1024). All markers were marginally higher (significant only for U-DPD/crea, P = 0.027) in women who had ever sustained fracture, compared to women without fracture. In women with recent retrospective fracture (since 2 years) (n = 100), the levels of all markers, except the two S-OCs, were significantly higher (r = 0.20-0.33, P = 0.049-0.001) the more recently the fracture had been sustained. Women with low current physical activity had elevated levels of U-DPD/crea (P < 0.001) and one U-OC (P = 0.014), while the other markers were unaffected.
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ABSTRACT: We analyzed the relationships between bone mineral density (BMD) or bone turnover marker (BTM) changes and vertebral fracture incidence in women treated with bazedoxifene using a post hoc analysis from a 3-year randomized, placebo-controlled study evaluating the effect of bazedoxifene (20 or 40 mg) on fracture risk reduction. BMD was assessed at baseline and every 6 months for 3 years. Osteocalcin and C-telopeptide of type I collagen were assessed at baseline and at 3, 12, and 36 months. Vertebral fractures were assessed with a semiquantitative visual assessment. Data were available for 5,244 women, of whom 3,476 were treated with bazedoxifene. Using a logistic regression analysis and the classical Li approach, the proportion of fracture incidence explained by BMD change after 3 years of bazedoxifene treatment was 29 % for the total hip and 44 % for the femoral neck. The proportion of treatment explained by lumbar BMD change could not be quantified accurately because of the significant interaction between treatment and change in BMD. With the same model, the 12-month BTM changes explained up to 29 % of the fracture risk reduction observed with the two forms of bazedoxifene. In women treated with bazedoxifene, changes in femoral neck BMD, hip BMD, or BTMs explained a moderate proportion of the fracture risk reduction observed during the 3 years of follow-up. However, BMD or BTM changes cannot be recommended for individual monitoring of women treated with bazedoxifene.Calcified Tissue International 10/2012; 91(4):244-9. · 2.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The incidence of osteoporotic fractures increases as our population ages. Until now, the exact biochemical processes that occur during the healing of metaphyseal fractures remain unclear. Diagnostic instruments that allow a dynamic insight into the fracture healing process are as yet unavailable. In the present matched pair analysis, we study the time course of the osteoanabolic markers bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), as well as the osteocatabolic markers crosslinked C-telopeptide of type-I-collagen (β-CTX) and serum band 5 tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP5b), during the healing of fractures that have a low level of bone mineral density (BMD) compared with fractures that have a normal BMD. Between March 2007 and February 2009, 30 patients aged older than 50 years who suffered a metaphyseal fracture were included in our study. BMDs were verified by dual energy Xray absorptiometry (DXEA) scans. The levels of BTMs were examined over an 8-week period. Osteoanabolic BAP levels in those with low levels of BMD were significantly different from the BAP levels in those with normal BMD. BAP levels in the former group increased constantly, whereas the latter group showed an initial strong decrease in BAP followed by slowly rising values. Osteocatabolic β-CTX increased in the bone of the normal BMD group constantly, whereas these levels decreased significantly in the bone of the group with low BMD from the first week. TRAP5b was significantly reduced in the low level BMD group. With this work, we conduct first insights into the molecular biology of the fracture healing process in patients with low levels of BMD that explains the mechanism of its fracture healing. The results may be one reason for the reduced healing qualities in bones with low BMD.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(5):e96058. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Monitoring of drug therapies to prevent fractures is controversial. Measurement of bone turnover markers has the potential to identify those with a suboptimal response to fracture prevention medication within a few months of its commencement. However, given the imprecision of currently commercially available assays of bone turnover markers, many individual persons who are “suboptimal medication responders” are likely to be misclassified as “adequate responders” or vice versa, depending on the cut point chosen to define suboptimal and adequate response. Before bone turnover markers can be recommended for routine use in clinical practice to monitor fracture prevention therapies, three advances are needed: 1) bone marker assays with better precision; 2) research establishing optimal cut points of bone marker levels to distinguish “suboptimal responders” from “adequate responders”; and 3) research establishing the incremental fracture reduction benefit from clinical interventions for “suboptimal responders” identified from bone marker measurements.Current Osteoporosis Reports 01/2012; 10(1):56-63.