14-3-3 protein in CSF: an early predictor of SIV CNS disease.
ABSTRACT In neurons, 14-3-3 proteins regulate diverse processes, including signal transduction, neurotransmitter production, and apoptosis by binding to target proteins, but the role 14-3-3 proteins play in the pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS) disease remains unclear. To examine the relationship between presence of 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and encephalitis in the SIV/macaque model of HIV CNS disease, CSF levels of 14-3-3 protein were measured by quantitative immunoblotting throughout infection in 6 SIV-infected pigtailed macaques. Beginning during asymptomatic infection and continuing until death, CSF levels of 14-3-3 were elevated in 4 of 6 SIV-infected animals. Animals with 14-3-3 protein in CSF had the highest viral loads in the CSF after acute infection and the highest levels of both viral RNA and protein in brain (p < 0.001). In contrast, the presence of 14-3-3 protein in CSF was not associated with CNS microglial/macrophage activation measured by quantitative immunohistochemical staining for CD68 (p = 0.13). CSF levels of 14-3-3 protein may be a valuable marker of early neuronal damage, CNS viral replication, and CNS disease progression in HIV-infected individuals.
Article: Proteomic and metabolomic strategies to investigate HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Diagnosing neurodegenerative diseases, monitoring their progression and assessing responses to treatments will all be aided by the identification of molecular markers of different stages of pathology. Protein biomarkers for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders that have been discovered using proteomics include complement C3, soluble superoxide dismutase and a prostaglandin synthase. Metabolomics has not yet been widely used for biomarker discovery, but early work shows that it has great potential.Genome Medicine 03/2010; 2(3):22.
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ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal (GI) disease is a debilitating feature of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection that can occur in the absence of histopathological abnormalities or identifiable enteropathogens. However, the mechanisms of GI dysfunction are poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to characterize changes in resident and inflammatory cells in the enteric nervous system (ENS) of macaques during the acute stage of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection to gain insight into potential pathogenic mechanisms of GI disease. Ganglia from duodenum, ileum, and colon were examined in healthy and acutely infected macaques by using a combination of routine histology, double-label immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization. Evaluation of tissues from infected macaques showed progressive infiltration of myenteric ganglia by CD3+ T cells and IBA1+ macrophages beginning as early as 8 days postinfection. Quantitative image analysis revealed that the severity of myenteric ganglionitis increased with time after SIV infection and, in general, was more severe in ganglia from the small intestine than in ganglia from the colon. Despite an abundance of inflammatory cells in myenteric ganglia during acute infection, the ENS was not a target for virus infection. This study provides evidence that the ENS may be playing a role in the pathogenesis of GI disease and enteropathy in HIV-infected people.Journal of Virology 06/2007; 81(12):6265-75. · 5.40 Impact Factor