Gender differences for non-fatal unintentional fall related injuries among older adults

National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA.
Injury Prevention (Impact Factor: 1.94). 05/2005; 11(2):115-9. DOI: 10.1136/ip.2004.005835
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To quantify gender differences for non-fatal unintentional fall related injuries among US adults age 65 years and older treated in hospital emergency departments (EDs).
The authors analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of ED visits for January 2001 through December 2001, available through the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP). For each initial ED visit, coders record one principal diagnosis (usually the most severe) and one primary part of the body affected.
Based on 22,560 cases, an estimated 1.64 million older adults were treated in EDs for unintentional fall injuries. Of these, approximately 1.16 million, or 70.5%, were women. Fractures, contusions/abrasions, and lacerations accounted for more than three quarters of all injuries. Rates for injury diagnoses were generally higher among women, most notably for fractures which were 2.2 times higher than for men. For all parts of the body, women's injury rates exceeded those of men. Rate ratios were greatest for injuries of the leg/foot (2.3), arm/hand (2.0), and lower trunk (2.0). The hospitalization rate for women was 1.8 times that for men.
Among older adults, non-fatal fall related injuries disproportionately affected women. Much is known about effective fall prevention strategies. We need to refine, promote, and implement these interventions. Additional research is needed to tailor interventions for different populations and to determine gender differences in the underlying causes and/or circumstances of falls. This information is vital for developing and implementing targeted fall prevention strategies.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Unintentional falls are common, especially among older adults. Many falls result in injuries, which lead to more medical conditions, disability, or even death. The current study evaluated the occurrence of falls and fall-related injuries, and their associated human factors among the population aged 45 years or older in the U.S. Methods: The data from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were analyzed. The BRFSS is an ongoing data collection program that monitors risk factors for health problems in the adult U.S. population. The 2006 BRFSS included two questions about falls and injuries from falls that occurred in the past three months. The data were analyzed using the statistical program SUDAAN, which can account for the complex survey design and sample weight. Results: Included in this study were 232,363 individuals who were aged 45 years or older and provided valid data on falls. Near 16% (n=38,976) of the study population reported at least one fall occurred in the past three months. All age groups had similar rates of falls with the highest occurrence seen among those aged 80 years or older. Females were more likely to fall than males (16.7% vs. 14.5%). The following factors increased the risk of falls: being unmarried, having a low income and education level, rural dwelling, no exercise, obesity, and poor health status (all p-values
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite extensive literature on falls among seniors, little is known about gender-specific risk factors. To determine the prevalence of falls by gender and sociodemographic, lifestyle/behavioral, and medical factors, we conducted a cross-sectional study in a nationally representative sample of Canadian adults who were 65 years of age or older (n = 14,881) from the Canadian Community Health Survey-Healthy Aging (2008-2009). Logistic regression models were applied to investigate gender-specific associations between potential risk factors and falls. In men, stroke (odds ratio (OR) = 1.91), nutritional risk (OR = 1.86), post-secondary school degree (OR = 1.68), eye disorder (OR = 1.35), widowed/separated/divorced marital status (OR = 1.28), and arthritis (OR = 1.27) were independently associated with significantly higher odds of falls. In women, significant independent correlates of falls included stroke (OR = 1.53), age of 85 years or older (OR = 1.51), nutritional risk (OR = 1.39), consumption of at least 1 alcoholic drink per week (OR = 1.39), use of 5 or more medications (OR = 1.36), arthritis (OR = 1.36), diabetes (OR = 1.31), and osteoporosis (OR = 1.22). Higher physical activity levels were protective in both genders, and higher household income was protective in women. Gender should be considered when planning fall prevention strategies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine fall incidence and explore clinical factors of falls among older Chinese veterans in military communities. [Subjects and Methods] We carried out a 12-month prospective study among 13 military communities in Beijing, China. Fall events were obtained by self-report to military community liaisons and monthly telephone interviews by researchers. [Results] Among the final sample of 447 older veterans, 86 fell once, 25 fell twice or more, and 152 falls occurred altogether. The incidence of falls and fallers were 342/1,000 person-years and 249/1,000 person-years. In Cox regression models, independent clinical factors associated with falls were visual acuity (RR=0.47), stroke (RR=2.43), lumbar diseases (RR=1.73), sedatives (RR=1.80), fall history in the past 6 months (RR=2.77), multiple chronic diseases (RR=1.53), multiple medications (RR=1.34), and five-repetition sit-to-stand test score (RR=1.41). Hearing acuity was close to being statistically significant. [Conclusion] The incidences of falls and fallers among older Chinese veterans were lower than those of Hong Kong and western countries. The clinical risk factors of falls were poor senses, stroke, lumbar diseases, taking sedatives, fall history in the past 6 months, having multiple chronic diseases, taking multiple medications, and poor physical function. The preventive strategies targeting the above risk factors are very significant for reducing falls.
    Journal of Physical Therapy Science 02/2015; 27(2):331-9. DOI:10.1589/jpts.27.331 · 0.20 Impact Factor


1 Download
Available from